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Internal Material Flows in the Earth and Their Effects on the Society

  • Attila Kerényi
  • Richard William McIntosh
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Development Goals Series book series (SDGS)

Abstract

Flows of the low viscosity molten iron in the outer core of Earth produce the magnetic field of the planet via the feature called “geodynamo”. The beneficial effects of this field on the biosphere are analysed in this chapter. Beneficial and disadvantageous effects of volcanism are discussed in detail. The spatial distribution of active volcanoes on Earth is presented together with their local and global effects on the basis of Volcanic Explosivity Index. Prevention possibilities against volcanic eruptions are also discussed including the methods of prediction. Reasons and types of earthquakes, the European Macroseismic Scale for intensity and Richter’s scale are also presented. Devastating earthquakes and volcanic eruptions with most casualties are mentioned together with the effects of the latter on the climate. Reasons and consequences of human-induced earthquakes are analysed. Finally, some methods of prevention and accommodation and the effects of volcanism and earthquakes on sustainable development are discussed.

Keywords

Geodynamo Geomagnetic field Volcanism Volcanic explosivity index Climatic anomaly Earthquakes European Macroseismic Scale Human-induced earthquakes Natural hazards 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Attila Kerényi
    • 1
  • Richard William McIntosh
    • 2
  1. 1.Landscape Protection and Environmental GeographyUniversity of DebrecenDebrecenHungary
  2. 2.Mineralogy and GeologyUniversity of DebrecenDebrecenHungary

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