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Lead Contamination and Its Dynamics in Soil–Plant System

  • M. L. DotaniyaEmail author
  • C. K. Dotaniya
  • Praveen Solanki
  • V. D. Meena
  • R. K. Doutaniya
Chapter
Part of the Radionuclides and Heavy Metals in the Environment book series (RHME)

Abstract

Heavy metal pollution is emerging at a faster rate in non-contaminated areas, which are near to metropolitan cities. The ever-growing population with higher growth rate, industrial extension and poor management of natural resources across the globe in developing countries, particularly in India, make environments vulnerable to metal contamination. Over the last few decades, owing to scarcity of good quality water, farmers are forced to utilize marginal quality water for irrigation purpose which has led to reduction in soil health crop production potential. Long-term application of industrial effluent are accumulating significant amounts of heavy metals in soils and reach to human body via food chain contamination. It causes different types of ill effect in human being. Among heavy metals, lead (Pb) occupies the top place as priority pollutant as per classification given by the Central Pollution Control Board. Due to its toxicity in human body, poor development of infants, mental weakness, nerve disorder, kidney damage, gastric problem, hormonal imbalance and cardiovascular disease are common. The main sources of Pb contamination are acid batteries, paint and varnish, coal industries, automobile sectors, plastic and agriculture sectors. Lack of proper technological intervention in respect to waste water treatment or its safe disposal, enhances the more chance of Pb contamination in soil and water bodies. In nature, it is present as Pb2+, different types of oxide and hydroxides, and oxyanionic complexes; their chemistry is affected by various soil and water parameters. Safe disposal and remediation of Pb-contaminated soils by using traditional and modern tools and techniques is the need of the day for sustainable crop production.

Keywords

Climate change Heavy metals Lead toxicity Lead–carbon dynamics Phytoremediation Soil microbial diversity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors earnestly thank Dr M. D. Meena, Scientist, ICAR-DRMR, Bharatpur, India for the help during the writing of the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. L. Dotaniya
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. K. Dotaniya
    • 2
  • Praveen Solanki
    • 3
  • V. D. Meena
    • 4
  • R. K. Doutaniya
    • 5
  1. 1.ICAR-Directarate of Rapeseed-Mustard ResearchBharatpurIndia
  2. 2.College of Agriculture, SKRAUBikanerIndia
  3. 3.Department of Environmental ScienceGBPUA&TPantnagarIndia
  4. 4.ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil ScienceBhopalIndia
  5. 5.OPJS UniversityChuruIndia

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