Heavy Metal Content in Soils and Hair of the Inhabitants Near Copper Zinc Mine (Bashkortostan, Russia)

  • Irina N. SemenovaEmail author
  • Yuliya S. Rafikova
  • Rezeda F. Khasanova
  • Yalil T. Suyundukov
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences book series (LNESS)


The aim of this study was to investigate the heavy metal content in the hair of children living near non-ferrous metal mines located in the urban settlements of Baymak, Sibay and Uchaly of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and in the soils obtained from the same area. The hair and soils samples were examined for the presence of the following metals: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The results of the study showed there to be increased levels of Cu (4.4-fold), Zn (7.9-fold) and Cd (2.5-fold) in soil samples which were exceeded the maximum permissible concentration (MPC). Mineral analysis of the hair samples was performed using a combination of atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data on hair from this study with the average reference data for Russia showed there to be an excess of Zn and Mn in the hair samples of the majority of the studied population: 50.0 and 48.8%, respectively. In addition, we observed an excess of Fe, Cu and Ni in a small number of children (23.3, 21.6 and 15.5% of the studied population, respectively). Deficiencies in Co and to a lesser extent in Zn, Cu, Fe, essential microelements for human health, were found in 55.2, 19.0, 19.8 and 15.5% of the studied population respectively. The results of this study could be used for biomonitoring of the extent of heavy metal burden in people living in contaminated areas.


Mining activities Heavy metals Hair children environmental biomonitoring 



This publication has been supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Government of the Republic of Bashkortostan, research projects no: 17-16-02002-OGN OGN-R_URAL-A and 18-413-020004 p_a. We thank Oluwatobiloba Oke, B.Sc. (Hons) for her comments and proofreading which greatly improved the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irina N. Semenova
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yuliya S. Rafikova
    • 1
  • Rezeda F. Khasanova
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yalil T. Suyundukov
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Strategic Studies of the Republic of BashkortostanSibayRussia
  2. 2.Sibay branch of Bashkir state UniversitySibayRussia

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