Assessment of Long-Lived Radionuclides (3H, 14C) and Heavy Metals in Snow Cover of Urban Areas as Indicators of Environmental Pollution (St. Petersburg, Russia)

  • Sergey V. Lebedev
  • Marianna A. Kulkova
  • Larisa M. ZarinaEmail author
  • Evgeny M. Nesterov
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences book series (LNESS)


The main pollutants in urban areas are heavy metals and radionuclides. Sources of the long-lived radioactive isotopes 14C and 3H are nuclear explosions and nuclear power plant emissions. Increased concentrations of radionuclides in the components of the natural environment can be evidence of environmental contamination. The central districts of Saint-Petersburg (Russia) were chosen for monitoring studies on the distribution of heavy metals, tritium, and radiocarbon in the snow cover of an urban area. This area was chosen because of its concentrated population density and location near a main road, a rail traffic center, and industrial facilities. Samples of snow were taken in February–April of 2011 and 2012, and March of 2013 and 2014. Geochemical scale survey results of 1:100,000 and 1:200,000 were used to establish the classification boundaries of the tested parameters. The method of charting GIS ArcGIS scorecards of heavy metals and 3H and 14C distribution in the central districts of St. Petersburg and Pushkin is described. The study presented here indicates that the main sources of pollution in the central districts of the city are related to industry and highways.


Environmental pollution Tritium Radiocarbon Heavy metals Snow cover GIS 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergey V. Lebedev
    • 1
  • Marianna A. Kulkova
    • 2
  • Larisa M. Zarina
    • 2
    Email author
  • Evgeny M. Nesterov
    • 2
  1. 1.Saint Petersburg State UniversitySaint PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Herzen State Pedagogical University of RussiaSaint PetersburgRussia

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