Advertisement

Infections and Infestations

  • Daniel Asz-Sigall
  • Maria Abril Martinez-Velasco
  • Roberto Arenas
Chapter

Abstract

Infections and infestations of the hair are mainly caused by bacteria, fungi, and ectoparasites. Dermoscopy and optical microscopy are very useful tools to confirm the diagnosis and follow-up; other diagnostic tests can be used, including KOH, Gram stain procedure, or cultures. Topical pediculicides are the first-line treatment in pediculosis, but resistance to these drugs is common. Manual removal of lice and occlusive agents are other alternative options; oral therapy is occasionally required in refractory cases. Oral antifungals are the first-line therapy in tinea capitis; treatment election depends on the clinical form, age, and etiological agent. Griseofulvin, terbinafine, and itraconazole are the three main drugs used. Piedra and trichomycosis are hair shaft infections, in which oral and topical treatments have a low therapeutic response; complete resolution can be achieved by general hygiene measures such as shaving off all the affected hairs.

Keywords

Hair infections Pediculosis Tinea capitis Piedra Trichomycosis Trichoscopy Treatment Pediculicides Ivermectin Antifungals Antibacterial agents Hair shaving 

References

  1. 1.
    Arenas R. Dermatologia. Atlas, diagnóstico y tratamiento. 6th ed. Mexico: McGraw Hill; 2015. p. 445–50.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goldstein A, Goldstein B. Pediculosis capitis. In: Post TW, editor. UpToDate. Waltham: UptoDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed on July 2018.
  3. 3.
    Treat JR. Tinea capitis. In: Post TW, editor. UpToDate. Waltham: UptoDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed on July 2018.
  4. 4.
    Cox GM, Perfect JR. Infections due to Trichosporon species and Blastoschizomyces capitatus. In: Post TW, editor. UpToDate. Waltham: UptoDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed on July 2018.
  5. 5.
    Schwartz R. Trichomycosis (trichobacteriosis). In: Post TW, editor. UpToDate. Waltham: UptoDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed on July 2018.
  6. 6.
    Tosti A. Dermoscopy of the hair and nails. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2016. p. 117–25.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Soleimani-Ahmadi M, Jaberhashemi SA, Zare M, Sanei-Dehkordi A. Prevalence of head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of permethrine shampoo in primary school girls in a low-income area in southeast of Iran. BMC Dermatol. 2017;17(1):10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jahangiri F. Case report: a new method for treatment of permethrin – resistant head lice. Clin Case Rep. 2017;5(5):601–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Meister L, Ochsendorf F. Head lice. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2016;113(45):763–72.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ko CJ, Elston DM. Pediculosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;50(1):1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roberts RJ. Clinical practice. Head lice. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(21):1645–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG. Fomite transmission in head lice. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56(6):1044–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Takano-Lee M, Edman JD, Mullens BA, Clark JM. Transmission potential of the human head louse, Pediculosis capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). Int J Dermatol. 2005;44(10):811–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cummings C, Finlay JC, MacDonald NE. Head lice infestations: a clinical update. Paediatr Child Health. 2018;23(1):e18–24.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Salavastru CM, Chosidow O, Janier M, Tiplica GS. European guideline for the management of pediculosis pubis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2017;31(9):1425–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Castellanos A, Andres A, Bernal L, Callejo G, Comes N, Gual A, et al. Pyrethroids inhibit K2P channels and activate sensory neurons: basis of insecticide-induced paraesthesias. Pain. 2018;159(1):92–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Verma P, Namdeo C. Treatment of pediculosis capitis. Indian J Dermatol. 2015;60(3):238–47.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Meinking TL, Vicaria M, Eyerdam DH, Villar ME, Reyna S, Suarez G. A randomized, investigator-blinded, time-ranging study of the comparative efficacy of 0.5% malathion gel versus Ovide Lotion (0.5% malathion) or Nix Crème Rinse (1% permethrin) used as labeled, for the treatment of head lice. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007;24(4):405–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Meinking TL, Villar ME, Vicaria M, Eyerdam DH, Paquet D, Mertz-Rivera K, et al. The clinical trials supporting benzyl alcohol lotion 5% (Ulesfia): a safe and effective topical treatment for head lice (pediculosis humanus capitis). Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27(1):19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Koch E, Clark JM, Cohen B, Meinking TL, Ryan WG, Stevenson A, et al. Management of Head Louse Infestations in the United States: a literature review. Pediatr Dermatol. 2016;33(5):466–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Villegas SC, Breitzka RL. Head lice and the use of spinosad. Clin Ther. 2012;34(1):14–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    McCormack PL. Spinosad: in pediculosis capitis. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2011;12(5):349–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zargari O, Aghazadeh N, Moeineddin F. Clinical applications of topical ivermectin in dermatology. Dermatol Online J. 2016;22(9).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Deeks LS, Naunton M, Currie MJ, Bowden FJ. Topical ivermectin 0.5% lotion for treatment of head lice. Ann Pharmacother. 2013;47(9):1161–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ivermectin (Sklice) topical lotion for head lice. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2012;54(1396):61–3.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Semmler M, Abdel-Ghaffar F, Gestmann F, Abdel-Aty M, Rizk I, Al-Quraishy S, et al. Randomized, investigator-blinded, controlled clinical study with lice shampoo (Licener®) versus dimethicone (Jacutin® Pedicul Fluid) for the treatment of infestations with head lice. Parasitol Res. 2017;116(7):1863–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Balcıoğlu IC, Karakuş M, Arserim SK, Limoncu ME, Töz S, Baştemur S, et al. Comparing the efficacy of commercially available insecticide and dimethicone based solutions on head lice, Pediculus capitis: in vitro trials. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2015;39(4):305–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ihde ES, Boscamp JR, Loh JM, Rosen L. Safety and efficacy of a 100% dimethicone pediculicide in school-age children. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Speare Bvsc R. A single application of dimethicone is superior to two applications of permethrin in ridding head lice. J Pediatr. 2013;163(5):1531–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lebwohl M, Clark L, Levitt J. Therapy for head lice based on life cycle, resistance, and safety considerations. Pediatrics. 2007;119(5):965–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Devore CD, Schutze GE, Council on School Health and Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Head lice. Pediatrics. 2015;135(5):e1355–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yoon KS, Gao JR, Lee SH, Clark JM, Brown L, Taplin D. Permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus capitis, and their treatment. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139(8):994–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stough D, Shellabarger S, Quiring J, Gabrielsen AA Jr. Efficacy and safety of spinosad and permethrin creme rinses for pediculosis capitis (head lice). Pediatrics. 2009;124(3):e389–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Packer H, Heiberger AL. Getting ahead of head lice: treatment in the setting of resistance. S D Med. 2016;69(10):468–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Soderlund DM. Pyrethroids, knockdown resistance and sodium channels. Pest Manag Sci. 2008;64(6):610–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Candy K, Nicolas P, Andriantsoanirina V, Izri A, Durand R. In vitro efficacy of five essential oils against Pediculus humanus capitis. Parasitol Res. 2018;117(2):603–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wolf L, Eertmans F, Wolf D, Rossel B, Adriaens E. Efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based head lice shampoo: a randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, comparative study. PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0156853.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Greive KA, Barnes TM. The efficacy of Australian essential oils for the treatment of head lice infestation in children: a randomised controlled trial. Australas J Dermatol. 2018;59(2):e99–e105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pearlman DL. A simple treatment for head lice: dry-on, suffocation-based pediculicide. Pediatrics. 2004;114(3):e275–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jahnke C, Bauer E, Hengge UR, Feldmeier H. Accuracy of diagnosis of pediculosis capitis: visual inspection vs wet combing. Arch Dermatol. 2009;145(3):309–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mumcuoglu KY, Friger M, Ioffe-Uspensky I, Ben-Ishai F, Miller J. Louse comb versus direct visual examination for the diagnosis of head louse infestations. Pediatr Dermatol. 2001;18(1):9–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sanchezruiz WL, Nuzum DS, Kouzi SA. Oral ivermectin for the treatment of head lice infestation. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2018;75(13):937–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ullio-Gamboa G, Palma S, Benoit JP, Allemandi D, Picollo MI, Toloza AC. Ivermectin lipid-based nanocarriers as novel formulations against head lice. Parasitol Res. 2017;116(8):2111–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Leulmi H, Diatta G, Sokhna C, Rolain JM, Raoult D. Assessment of oral ivermectin versus shampoo in the treatment of pediculosis (head lice infestation) in rural areas of Sine-Saloum, Senegal. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2016;48(6):627–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ahmad HM, Abdel-Azim ES, Abdel-Aziz RT. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice. Dermatol Ther. 2014;27(5):307–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hipolito RB, Mallorca FG, Zuniga-Macaraig ZO, Apolinario PC, Wheeler-Sherman J. Head lice infestation: single drug versus combination therapy with one percent permethrin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Pediatrics. 2001;107(3):E30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sim S, Lee IY, Lee KJ, Seo JH, Im KI, Shin MH, et al. A survey on head lice infestation in Korea (2001) and the therapeutic efficacy of oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole adding to lindane shampoo. Korean J Parasitol. 2003;41(1):57–61.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Speare R, Cahill C, Thomas G. Head lice on pillows, and strategies to make a small risk even less. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42(8):626–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Goates BM, Atkin JS, Wilding KG, Birch KG, Cottam MR, Bush SE, et al. An effective nonchemical treatment for head lice: a lot of hot air. Pediatrics. 2006;118(5):1962–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Izri A, Chosidow O. Efficacy of machine laundering to eradicate head lice: recommendations to decontaminate washable clothes, linens, and fomites. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42(2):e9–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nolan K, Kamrath J, Levitt J. Lindane toxicity: a comprehensive review of the medical literature. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012;29(2):141–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ayoub N, Maatouk I, Merhy M, Tomb R. Treatment of pediculosis capitis with topical albendazole. J Dermatolog Treat. 2012;23(1):78–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Burgess IF, Brunton ER, French R, Burgess NA, Lee PN. Prevention of head louse infestation: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over study of a novel concept product, 1% 1,2-octanediol spray versus placebo. BMJ Open. 2014;4(5):e004634.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Burgess IF, Lee PN, Kay K, Jones R, Brunton ER. 1,2-Octanediol, a novel surfactant, for treating head louse infestation: identification of activity, formulation, and randomised, controlled trials. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35419.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fuller LC, Barton RC, Mohd Mustapa MF, Proudfoot LE, Punjabi SP, Higgins EM. British Association of Dermatologists’ guidelines for the management of tinea capitis 2014. Br J Dermatol. 2014;171(3):454–63.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lorch Dauk KC, Comrov E, Blumer JL, O’Riordan MA, Furman LM. Tinea capitis: predictive value of symptoms and time to cure with griseofulvin treatment. Clin Pediatr. 2010;49(3):280–6.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fuller LC, Smith CH, Cerio R, Marsden RA, Midgley G, Beard AL, et al. A randomized comparison of 4 weeks of terbinafine vs. 8 weeks of griseofulvin for the treatment of tinea capitis. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144(2):321–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gupta AK, Cooper EA, Bowen JE. Meta-analysis: griseofulvin efficacy in the treatment of tinea capitis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2008;7(4):369–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kakourou T, Uksal U. Guidelines for the management of tinea capitis in children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27(3):226–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gupta AK, Drummond-Main C. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing particular doses of griseofulvin and terbinafine for the treatment of tinea capitis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30(1):1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gonzalez U, Seaton T, Bergus G, Jacobson J, Martinez-Monzon C. Systemic antifungal therapy for tinea capitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;4:CD004685.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gupta AK, Ryder JE. The use of oral antifungal agents to treat onychomycosis. Dermatol Clin. 2003;21(3):469–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ghannoum MA, Wraith LA, Cai B, Nyirady J, Isham N. Susceptibility of dermatophyte isolates obtained from a large worldwide terbinafine tinea capitis clinical trial. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159(3):711–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Friedlander SF, Aly R, Krafchik B, Blumer J, Honig P, Stewart D, et al. Terbinafine in the treatment of Trichophyton tinea capitis: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, duration-finding study. Pediatrics. 2002;109(4):602–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Devliotou-Panagiotidou D, Koussidou-Eremondi TH. Efficacy and tolerability of 8 weeks’ treatment with terbinafine in children with tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis: a comparison of three doses. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004;18(2):155–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lipozencic J, Skerlev M, Orofino-Costa R, Zaitz VC, Horvath A, Chouela E. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, duration-finding study of oral terbinafine and open-label, high-dose griseofulvin in children with tinea capitis due to Microsporum species. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146(5):816–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Arabatzis M, Kyprianou M, Velegraki A, Makri A, Voyatzi A. Microsporum canis antifungal susceptibilities: concerns regarding their clinical predictability. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;36(4):385–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ginter-Hanselmayer G, Seebacher C. Treatment of tinea capitis – a critical appraisal. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2011;9(2):109–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Elewski BE, Caceres HW, DeLeon L, El Shimy S, Hunter JA, Korotkiy N, et al. Terbinafine hydrochloride oral granules versus oral griseofulvin suspension in children with tinea capitis: results of two randomized, investigator-blinded, multicenter, international, controlled trials. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59(1):41–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gupta AK, Cooper EA, Lynde CW. The efficacy and safety of terbinafine in children. Dermatol Clin. 2003;21(3):511–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tey HL, Tan AS, Chan YC. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing griseofulvin and terbinafine in the treatment of tinea capitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64(4):663–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gupta AK, Ginter G. Itraconazole is effective in the treatment of tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2001;18(6):519–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ginter-Hanselmayer G, Smolle J, Gupta A. Itraconazole in the treatment of tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis: experience in a large cohort. Pediatr Dermatol. 2004;21(4):499–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Koumantaki-Mathioudaki E, Devliotou-Panagiotidou D, Rallis E, Athanassopoulou V, Koussidou-Eremondi T, Katsambas A, et al. Is itraconazole the treatment of choice in Microsporum canis tinea capitis? Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2005;31(Suppl):11–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gupta AK, Cooper EA. Update in antifungal therapy of dermatophytosis. Mycopathologia. 2008;166(5–6):353–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Grover C, Arora P, Manchanda V. Comparative evaluation of griseofulvin, terbinafine and fluconazole in the treatment of tinea capitis. Int J Dermatol. 2012;51(4):455–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gupta AK, Dlova N, Taborda P, et al. Once weekly fluconazole is effective in children in the treatment of tinea capitis: a prospective, multicentre study. Br J Dermatol. 2000;142:965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Keipert JA. Beneficial effect of corticosteroid therapy in microsporum canis kerion. Australas J Dermatol. 1984;25(3):127–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Proudfoot LE, Higgins EM, Morris-Jones R. A retrospective study of the management of pediatric kerion in Trichophyton tonsurans infection. Pediatr Dermatol. 2011;28(6):655–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gilaberte Y, Rezusta A, Gil J, Saenz-Santamaria MC, Coscojuela C, Navarro M, et al. Tinea capitis in infants in their first year of life. Br J Dermatol. 2004;151(4):886–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Zaraa I, Hawilo A, Trojjet S, El Euch D, Mokni M, Ben Osman A. Letter: tinea capitis in infants in their first 2 years of life: a 12-year study and a review of the literature. Dermatol Online J. 2012;18(7):16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Cafarchia C, Romito D, Capelli G, Guillot J, Otranto D. Isolation of Microsporum canis from the hair coat of pet dogs and cats belonging to owners diagnosed with M. canis tinea corporis. Vet Dermatol. 2006;17(5):327–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Greer DL. Successful treatment of tinea capitis with 2% ketoconazole shampoo. Int J Dermatol. 2000;39(4):302–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chen C, Koch LH, Dice JE, Dempsey KK, Moskowitz AB, Barnes-Eley ML, et al. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27(5):459–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bonifaz A, Gómez-Daza F, Paredes V, Ponce RM. Tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, white piedra, and black piedra. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28(2):140–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Viswanath V, Kriplani D, Miskeen AK, Patel B, Torsekar RG. White piedra of scalp hair by Trichosporon inkin. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2011;77(5):591–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hazirolan G, Canton E, Sahin S, Arikan-Akdagli S. Head-to-head comparison of inhibitory and fungicidal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole against clinical isolates of Trichosporon asahii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57(10):4841–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Khandpur S, Reddy BS. Itraconazole therapy for white piedra affecting scalp hair. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;47(3):415–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gip L. Black piedra: the first case treated with terbinafine (Lamisil). Br J Dermatol. 1994;130(Suppl 43):26–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Golubev VI, Golubev NV. Selenium tolerance of yeasts. Mikrobiologiia. 2002;71(4):455–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Schwartz RA. Superficial fungal infections. Lancet. 2004;364(9440):1173–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shivaprakash MR, Singh G, Gupta P, Dhaliwal M, Kanwar AJ, Chakrabarti A. Extensive white piedra of the scalp caused by Trichosporon inkin: a case report and review of literature. Mycopathologia. 2011;172(6):481–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kalter DC, Tschen JA, Cernoch PL, McBride ME, Sperber J, Bruce S, et al. Genital white piedra: epidemiology, microbiology, and therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;14(6):982–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bonifaz A, Váquez-González D, Fierro L, Araiza J, Ponce RM. Trichomycosis (trichobacteriosis): clinical and microbiological experience with 56 cases. Int J Trichology. 2013;5(1):12–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Huang CF, Liaw FY, Liu YC, Wang WM. Dermacase. Can you identify this condition? Trichomycosis axillaris (TA). Can Fam Physician. 2013;59(6):647–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Cervantes J, Johr RJ, Tosti A. Dermoscopy of yellow concretions on axillary hair. Skin Appendage Disord. 2018;4(2):86–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rosen T, Krawczynska AM, McBride ME, Ellner K. Naftifine treatment of trichomycosis pubis. Int J Dermatol. 1991;30(9):667–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Asz-Sigall
    • 1
  • Maria Abril Martinez-Velasco
    • 1
  • Roberto Arenas
    • 2
  1. 1.National University of Mexico, Department of Onco-dermatology and Trichology ClinicMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.“Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez” General HospitalMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations