This chapter presents the first nation-based discussion on university internationalization. Through the eyes of Chinese university leaders, China’s cases illustrate the ways in which a nation’s economic and cultural features can shape universities’ approach to internationalization. Together with the national economy’s advancement in recent decades and improved research capacity, universities in China are striving for an equal position in international collaborations. Although they were comfortable playing a follower role in their international development in past decades because of a lack of confidence and capacity, today’s Chinese universities, particularly the top ones, are sufficiently confident to initiate and lead transnational agendas. This confidence comes from both the economy and the culture.
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