Knowledge Representation and Management for Precision Agriculture: A Case Study

  • Maryam Khalid
  • Habiba Saim
  • Zoha Qamar
  • Fahad Akhtar
  • Mian M. AwaisEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 1027)


Precision Agriculture (PA) means the use of information technology for the management of crop growing procedures in such a way that farming methods implementation is accurate, controlled and done on time so that maximum yield can be obtained while reducing the losses, eliminating health hazards and cutting down the input costs. Despite the significance of PA, its practical implementation is yet scarce in Pakistan. The successful implementation of PA depends on gathering, storing, and sharing knowledge being generated at various levels. The knowledge that is needed to be shared includes best practices at farming level, results of various crop monitoring mechanisms, and the latest research findings at research institutes. An efficient knowledge storing and sharing system ultimately results in better crop plans, high yields and cost reduction. Due to slow knowledge sharing processes, stakeholders especially the farmers get delayed information. Also, the process level integration, that is responsible for calculating agricultural indices, crop health monitoring parameters, and parameter estimation techniques require coupling of different Knowledge Management (KM) technologies. Common KM systems lack such capabilities thus result in overall reduced benefits. This paper proposes a KM framework through which knowledge can be readily stored and shared with all the stakeholders through process automation. The system being proposed has three layered architecture with organizational layer at the top, connected to process layer and resources through a conceptual layer. This fully integrated KM framework has been applied to Rice Research Institute (RRI) at KalaShah Kaku, Lahore. Automation of manual processes done at RRI has been achieved through the application of proposed KM framework and is one of the main contributions of this paper. The RRI study shows that real time analysis can be shared promptly with the stakeholders through efficient knowledge management. The proposed KM model is generic and can be customized for any other organization related to agriculture or otherwise.


Wireless rechargeable sensor network Network planning Meta-heuristic algorithm 



Our special thanks to Dr. Sabir at RRI for providing technical assistance for Rice crop, and to Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for funding the KMAT project.


  1. 1.
    KPMG, KPMG Management Consulting, Issue: Knowledge Management, p. 1 (1998)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tacit, Explicit, and Implicit Knowledge: Definitions and Examples.
  3. 3.
    Arthur Andersen and The American Productivity and Quality Center: The American Productivity and Quality Center. The Knowledge Management Assessment Tool: External Benchmarking Version (1996)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fahey, L., Prusak, L.: The eleven deadliest sins of knowledge managements. Calif. Manag. Rev. 40, 265–276 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Leonard-Barton, D.: Wellsprings of Knowledge. Harvard Business School Press, Boston (1995)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    van der Spek, R., Spijkervet, A.: Knowledge Management: Dealing Intelligently with Knowledge. Knowledge Management and Its Integrative Elements, Liebowitz, J., Wilcox, L. (eds.) CRC Press, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wiig, K.: Knowledge Management Foundations. Schema Press, Arlington (1993)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    CEN CWA 14924 European Guide to good Practice in Knowledge Management Brussels, 1–5 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hahn, J., Subramani, M.R.: A framework of knowledge management systems: issues and challenges for theory and practice. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-First International Conference on Information Systems, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 302–312 (2000)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heisig, P.: Harmonisation of knowledge management – comparing 160 KM frameworks around the globe. J. Knowl. Manage. 13, 4–31 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bhagat, R.S., Kedia, B.L., Harveston, P.D., Triandis, H.C.: Cultural variations in the cross-border transfer of organizational knowledge: an integrative framework. Acad. Manage. Rev. 27, 204–221 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maier, R.: Knowledge Management Systems: Information and Communication Technologies for Knowledge Management, 3rd edn. Springer, Heidelberg (2007). Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grover, V., Davenport, T.H.: General perspectives on knowledge management: fostering a research agenda. J. Manage. Inf. Syst. 18, 5–21 (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alavi, M., Leidner, D.E.: Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: conceptual foundations and research issues. MISQ 25, 107–136 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Snowden, D.: Complex acts of knowing: paradox and descriptive self-awareness. In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Knowledge Management (ECKM 2002), Dublin, September 2002 (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Handzic, M., Hasan, H.: The search for an integrated KM framework. In: Australian Studies in Knowledge Management, Chapter 1, pp. 3–34. UOW Press (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liebowitz, J.: Putting more rigor into knowledge management. In: Proceedings of the Knowledge Management Aston Conference (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pawlowski, J., Bick, M.: The global knowledge management framework: towards a theory for knowledge management in globally distributed settings. Electron. J. Knowl. Manage. 10, 92–108 (2012)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liao, S.: Knowledge management technologies and applications—literature review from 1995 to 2002. Expert Syst. Appl. 25, 155–164 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ramsden, S.: Facilitating Sustainable Agriculture: Participatory Learning and Adaptive Management in Times of Environmental Uncertainty, Roling, N.G., Wagemakers, M.A.E. (eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1998). ISBN: 0 521 58174 5. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 131, 245–249 (1998)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stirling, G.R.: Soil Ecosystem Management in Sustainable Agriculture. Biological Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes (2014)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gaviria-Marin, M., Merigó, J., Baier-Fuentes, H.: Knowledge management: a global examination based on bibliometric analysis. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change 140, 194–220 (2019). ISSN 0040-1625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kang, H.: Critical success factors in implementing process-oriented knowledge management systems (PKMS) in the public sector in Korea. Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Iowa State University (2011)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Soulignac, V., Pinet, F., Vallas, M., Ermine, J.: Experiments on the use of knowledge management tools for agriculture. In: 12th European International Farming Systems Association (IFSA) Symposium, Social and Technological Transformation of Farming Systems: Diverging and Converging Pathways (2016)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nagel, U.: Knowledge flows in agriculture; Linking Research, Extension and the farmer. Zeitschrift fürAusländische Landwirtschaft 18.Jg., Heft2: pp. 135–150 (1979)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Handzic, M.: Knowledge management in SMEs practical guidelines. J. Commer. Ind. 1, 1–11 (2006)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arshad, A., Noordin, M., Othman, R.: A Comprehensive Knowledge Management Process Framework for Healthcare Information Systems in Healthcare Industry of Pakistan, pp. 30–35 (2016)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Muthuveloo, R., Shanmugam, N., Ping Teoh, A.: The impact of tacit knowledge management on organizational performance: evidence from Malaysia. Asia Pac. Manage. Rev. 22, 192–201 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryam Khalid
    • 1
  • Habiba Saim
    • 1
  • Zoha Qamar
    • 1
  • Fahad Akhtar
    • 1
  • Mian M. Awais
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science, SBA-SSELUMSLahorePakistan

Personalised recommendations