Penile Transplantation: The Last Frontier in Penile Reconstruction

  • André Van der MerweEmail author
  • Amir D. Zarrabi
  • Alexander Zühlke


Penile allotransplantation, which can be classified as a vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation (VCA), is a new technique pushing the frontiers of reconstructive surgery in an attempt to address the serious shortcomings in the current techniques of penile reconstruction in specifically those patients where there is a complete absence of penile tissue. Several conditions may lead to penile loss, each of which may require a unique approach to ensure a successful outcome. The first successful penis transplantation was performed in 2014, and to date (2018) a total of only four cases have been performed worldwide. All four cases did well with normal or improving erectile function and normal urination. Why not more cases are being attempted is a question that needs to be addressed.


Penile transplantation Genital transplantation Allotransplantation Phalloplasty Aphallia Immunosuppression Erectile function Ritual circumcision Genital blast injury Genital trauma Penile cancer Penectomy Vascularised composite tissue allotransplantation VCA 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • André Van der Merwe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amir D. Zarrabi
    • 1
  • Alexander Zühlke
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of UrologyTygerberg Academic Hospital and Stellenbosch University Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesStellenboschSouth Africa
  2. 2.Division of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryTygerberg Academic Hospital and Stellenbosch University Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesStellenboschSouth Africa

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