• Jan Kozák
  • Roger M. W. Musson


For the first of the four elements to come under inspection for its violent—and indeed disastrous—extremes, we choose Earth. There are two chief manifestations by which this element produces fatalities among human populations: the earthquake, and the landslide or landslip, in which gravitational forces cause mass movements, with ruinous results for any settlement below.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Kozák
    • 1
  • Roger M. W. Musson
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of GeophysicsAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicPragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.School of GeosciencesEdinburgh UniversityEdinburghUK
  3. 3.British Geological SurveyEdinburghUK

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