Learning Outcomes: Core Issues in Higher Education

  • Heinz-Ulrich Schmidt


Harmonisation in the European Higher Education Area is the main objective of the Bologna Declaration of 1999. One of the most important issues is the paradigm shift from traditional faculty-centered teaching to student-centered teaching and learning by focusing on the intended learning outcomes. Learning outcomes on programme and on module/course level provide a useful guide to inform potential candidates and employers about the general and subject-specific qualifications that a graduate will possess. The internationally agreed European Qualifications Framework for Higher Education assures the same level of study programmes and modules, which must be oriented towards learning outcomes. Learning outcomes therefore have to be assessed. Those assessments are challenging in particular to the teachers, since they have to take care for appropriate formats of assignments and consistency between the learning outcomes, the learning and teaching activities, and assessment procedures (constructive alignment). The contribution contents some international examples of good practice.


Bologna Declaration Paradigm shift Learning outcomes European Qualifications Framework of Higher Education Assessments Constructive alignment 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinz-Ulrich Schmidt
    • 1
  1. 1.Foundation for International Business Administration Accreditation (FIBAA)BonnGermany

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