Advertisement

“Taking the Nature Out of Mother”: From Politics of Exclusion to Feminisms of Difference and Recognition of Rights

  • Jadwiga E. Pieper MooneyEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Studies of the Americas book series (STAM)

Abstract

This study presents examples of people and institutions that used maternalism to frame political projects and defined motherhood as a biologically determined, natural, and universalist category. Benevolent maternalist elite women reached out to working-class women; both women and men employed secular and religious discourses of motherhood for leftist or right-wing political causes. These examples supply evidence of the multifaceted, complex characteristics of the uses of motherhood that make maternal mobilization unsuitable for feminist activism in the twenty-first century.

References

  1. Adriasola, Claudia, et al. 1979. Algunas ideas respecto a la condición de la mujer. Santiago, Chile: Academia de Humanismo Cristiano.Google Scholar
  2. Agencia EFE. 2016. Chile Creates Ministry of Woman and Gender Equality. June 3. https://www.efe.com/efe/english/world/chile-creates-ministry-of-woman-andgender-equality/50000262-2945543.
  3. Aguirre, Carmen. 2011. Something Fierce: Memoirs of a Revolutionary Daughter. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre.Google Scholar
  4. Antezana-Pernet, Corinne. 1996. Mobilizing Women in the Popular Front Era: Feminism, Class, and Politics in the Movimiento Pro-Emancipación de la Mujer Chilena (MEMCh), 1935–1950. PhD dissertation, University of California, Irvine.Google Scholar
  5. Baldez, Lisa. 2002. Why Women Protest: Women’s Movements in Chile. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bravo, Rosa, María Isabel Cruzat, Elena Serrano, and Rosalba Todaro. 1986. Y así va creciendo… el feminismo en Chile. In Movimiento feminista en América Latina y el Caribe: balance y perspectivas, ed. Isis International, 25–28. Santiago de Chile: Ediciones Isis Internacional de las Mujeres.Google Scholar
  7. Brito Peña, Alejandra. 2005. De mujer independiente a madre. De peón a padre proveedor: la construcción de identidades de género en la sociedad popular chilena 1880–1930. Concepción, Chile: Ediciones Escaparate.Google Scholar
  8. Cañet Caniulen Isabel y Millaray Painemal Morales. 2018. ¿Es que acaso debemos ser todas feministas? Reflexiones de mujeres Mapuche para un debate. February 3. http://www.mapuexpress.org/?tag=mujer-indigena-mujer-mapuche-feminismo-wallmapu.
  9. Carrasco, Fabiola B. 2016. Centros de madres en el Chile rural. Un espacio de seguridad.: “Cociendo, costureando, entablando un entramado social”. Revista Nomadías 22: 83–100.Google Scholar
  10. Chile. 1968. Ley no. 16.880: organizaciones comunitarias. Diario oficial no. 27.113. Ediciones Legales, Mario Barrientos Contreras, Santiago de Chile.Google Scholar
  11. ———. 1970. Anexo, estatuto tipo para centros de madres. In Como participar: juntas de vecinos, centros de madres, clubes deportivos, centros culturales, etc. Santiago de Chile: Editora Nacional Quimantú.Google Scholar
  12. ———. 1973. Reglamento de la ley no. 16.880. “Estatuto tipo” para juntas de vecinos. Santiago de Chile: Ediciones Gutenberg.Google Scholar
  13. ———. 1982. Valores patrios y valores familiares. Cuadernos de Difusión no. 7. Secretaría Nacional de la Mujer, Santiago de Chile.Google Scholar
  14. Chuchryk, Patricia. 1984. Protest, Politics, and Personal Life: The Emergence of Feminism in a Military Dictatorship, Chile 1973–1983. Doctoral thesis, York University, National Library of Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  15. Círculo de Estudios de la Mujer. 1983. Reflexiones sobre la práctica feminista. Paper presented at the III Encounter for Popular Education, Santiago de Chile.Google Scholar
  16. Confederación Nacional de Centros de Madres (Chile). 1972. Objetivos especificos de COCEMA. Santiago de Chile: COCEMA.Google Scholar
  17. Correa Morandé, María. 1974. La guerra de las mujeres. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universidad Técnica del Estado.Google Scholar
  18. Covarrubias, Paz. 1978. El movimiento feminista chileno. In Chile: mujer y sociedad, ed. Covarrubias Paz and Rolando Franco, 615–648. Santiago de Chile: Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia.Google Scholar
  19. ———. 1981. El movimiento feminista chileno. Santiago de Chile: Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Círculo de la Condición de la Mujer.Google Scholar
  20. Dandavati, Annie G. 1996. The Women’s Movement and the Transition to Democracy in Chile. New York: P. Lang.Google Scholar
  21. De Ramón, Armando. 2000. Santiago de Chile, 1541–1991: historia de una sociedad urbana. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Sudamericana.Google Scholar
  22. Deutsch, Sandra McGee. 1999. Las derechas: the extreme right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890–1939. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. ———. 2001. Spreading Right-Wing Patriotism, Femininity, and Morality: Women in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1900–1940. In Radical Women in Latin America: Left and Right, ed. Victoria González-Rivera and Karen Kampwirth, 223–248. University Park, PA: Penn State Press.Google Scholar
  24. ———. 2018. The New School Lecture: ‘An Army of Women’: Communist-Linked Solidarity Movements, Maternalism, and Political Consciousness in 1930s and 1940s Argentina. The Americas 75 (1): 95–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Drake, Paul W., and Ivan Jaksic. 1991. The Struggle for Democracy in Chile, 1982–1990. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  26. Eggert, Jennifer Philippa. 2017. Mothers, Bombs, and a Whole Lot of Gender Clichés. August 11. http://www.globalpolicyjournal.com/blog/11/08/2017/mothers-bombs-and-whole-lot-gender-clichés.
  27. Ensalaco, Mark. 1999. Chile under Pinochet: Recovering the Truth. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  28. Errázuriz Tagle, Javiera. 2006. Discourses on Women’s Suffrage in Chile 1865–1949. Historia (Santiago) 1: 1–26.Google Scholar
  29. Foucault, Michel. 2016. Power as Knowledge (1976). In Social Theory: The Multicultural, Global, and Classic Readings, ed. Charles Lemert, 353–356. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  30. Freedman, Estelle B. 2006. Feminism, Sexuality, and Politics: Essays. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  31. Frei Montalva, Eduardo. 1977. The Mandate of History and Chile’s Future. Athens, OH: Ohio University, Center for International Studies, Latin America Program.Google Scholar
  32. Frohmann, Alicia, and Teresa Valdés. 1993. Democracy in the Country and in the Home: The Women’s Movement in Chile. Santiago de Chile: FLACSO.Google Scholar
  33. Gaviola Artigas, Edda. 1986. Queremos votar en las próximas elecciones: historia del movimiento femenino chileno, 1913–1952. Santiago de Chile: Centro de Análisis y Difusión de la Condición de la Mujer.Google Scholar
  34. Gentry, Caron E., and Laura Sjoberg. 2015. Beyond Mothers, Monsters, Whores: Thinking about Women’s Violence in Global Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Giordano, Verónica. 2010. La ampliación de los derechos civiles de las mujeres en Chile (1925) y Argentina (1926). Mora (Buenos Aires) 16 (2): 97–113.Google Scholar
  36. González-Rivera, Victoria, and Karen Kampwirth. 2001. Radical Women in Latin America: Left and Right. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Gordon, Linda. 2002. The Moral Property of Women: A History of Birth Control Politics in America. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  38. Haas, Liesl. 2010. Feminist Policymaking in Chile. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Hammons, Stacy A. 2008. Assisted Reproductive Technologies: Changing Conceptions of Motherhood? Affilia 23 (3): 270–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Herrera, Florencia. 2007. La otra mamá: madres no biológicas en la pareja lésbica. In Conjugalidades, parentalidades e identidades lésbicas, gays e travestis, ed. Miriam Pillar Grossi, Anna Paula Uziel, and Luiz Mello, 213–232. Rio de Janeiro: Garamond Universitaria.Google Scholar
  41. Hutchison, Elizabeth Q. 2001. Labors Appropriate to Their Sex: Gender, Labor, and Politics in Urban Chile, 1900–1930. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Illanes, María Angélica. 1993. En el nombre del pueblo, del estado y de la ciencia: historia social de la salud pública, Chile 1880/1973. Santiago de Chile: Colectivo de Atención Primaria.Google Scholar
  43. Irarrázaval de Pereira, Isabel. 1918. Sobre algunos derechos a los que la mujer debe aspirar. In Relaciones y documentos del Congreso Mariano Femenino, 278–279. Santiago de Chile: Escuela Tipográfica La Gratitud Nacional.Google Scholar
  44. Kirkwood, Julieta. 1986. Ser política en Chile: las feministas y los partidos. Santiago de Chile: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales.Google Scholar
  45. ———. 1990. Ser política en Chile: los nudos de la sabiduría feminista. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Cuarto Propio.Google Scholar
  46. La Mujer Nueva. 1935a. “La mujer obrera es doblemente explotada,” and “Proyecciones del movimiento emancipacionista femenino”. La Mujer Nueva 1: 1–2.Google Scholar
  47. ———. 1935b. Los niños proletarios tienen hambre. La Mujer Nueva 1: 2.Google Scholar
  48. ———. 1938. La Mujer Nueva 22: 4.Google Scholar
  49. Lavrin, Asunción. 1995. Women, Feminism, and Social Change in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay, 1890–1940. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  50. de los Angeles Crummett, Maria. 1977. El Poder Feminino: The Mobilization of Women against Socialism in Chile. Latin American Perspectives 4 (4): 103–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Molyneux, Maxine. 2001. Women’s Movements in International Perspective: Latin America and Beyond. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Montecino Aguirre, Sonia, and Josefina Rossetti. 1990. Tramas para un nuevo destino: propuestas de la Concertación de Mujeres por la Democracia. Arancibia Hnos.Google Scholar
  53. Moulián, Luis, and Gloria Guerra. 2000. Eduardo Frei M. (1911–1982): biografía de un estadista utópico. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Sudamericana.Google Scholar
  54. Muñoz Dálbora, Adriana. 1987. Fuerza feminista y democracia: utopía a realizar. Santiago de Chile: Ediciones Documentas.Google Scholar
  55. Oppenheim, Lois Hecht. 2007. Politics in Chile: Socialism, Authoritarianism, and Market Democracy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  56. Ossandón Guzmán, Teresa. 1928. La Acción Social de La Mujer en Chile. In Actividades femeninas en Chile, 571–577. Santiago de Chile: La Ilustración.Google Scholar
  57. Oxman, Verónica. 1983. La participación de la mujer campesina en organizaciones: los centros de madres rurales. Santiago de Chile: Grupo de Investigaciones Agrarias, Academia de Humanismo Cristiano.Google Scholar
  58. Pieper Mooney, Jadwiga E. 2009. The Politics of Motherhood: Maternity and Women’s Rights in Twentieth-Century Chile. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. ———. 2009b. Feminist Activism and Women’s Rights Mobilization in the Chilean Círculo de Estudios de la Mujer: Beyond Maternalist Mobilization. Center for the Education of Women (CEW), University of Michigan. http://www.cew.umich.edu/PDFs/PieperMooney3-09.pdf.
  60. ———. 2017. The Long Road to Reproductive Rights in Chile. Nacla, September 19. https://nacla.org/news/2017/09/19/long-road-reproductive-rights-chile.
  61. Power, Margaret. 2000. Class and Gender in the Anti-Allende Women’s Movement: Chile, 1970–1973. Social Politics 7 (3): 289–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. ———. 2002a. Right-Wing Women in Chile: Feminine Power and the Struggle against Allende, 1964–1973. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  63. ———. 2002b. Right-Wing Women, Sexuality, and Politics in Chile during the Pinochet Dictatorship, 1973–1990. In Right-Wing Women: From Conservatives to Extremists around the World, ed. Paola Bacchetta and Margaret Power, 273–286. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  64. ———. 2004. More than Mere Pawns: Right-Wing Women in Chile. Journal of Women’s History 16 (3): 138–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. ———. 2007. The Most Revolutionary Figure in Chile is La Mujer’: Narratives of the Anti-Allende Women’s Movement. In Revolucionarias: Conflict and Gender in Latin American Narratives by Women, ed. Par Kumaraswami and Niamh Thornton, 117–138. Oxford: P. Lang.Google Scholar
  66. Razeto Migliaro, Luis. 1983. Las Organizaciones económicas populares: la experiencia de las nuevas organizaciones económicas populares en Chile: situación y perspectivas. Santiago de Chile: Programa de Economía del Trabajo, Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Arzobispado de Santiago.Google Scholar
  67. Reuque Paillalef, Rosa Isolde, and Florencia E. Mallon. 2002. When a Flower is Reborn: The Life and Times of a Mapuche Feminist. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Richard, Nelly. 1998. Género, valores y diferencia(s). In Residuos y metáforas: ensayos de crítica cultural sobre el Chile de la transición, 199–218. Santiago de Chile: Cuarto Propio.Google Scholar
  69. Richards, Patricia. 2003. Expanding Women’s Citizenship? Mapuche Women and Chile’s National Women’s Service. Latin American Perspectives 30 (2): 41–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. ———. 2006. The Politics of Difference and Women’s Rights: Lessons from Pobladoras and Mapuche Women in Chile. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society 1 (1): 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. ———. 2007. Bravas, Permitidas, Obsoletas: Mapuche Women in the Chilean Print Media. Gender and Society 21 (4): 553–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. ———. 2010. Of Indians and Terrorists: How the State and Local Elites Construct the Mapuche in Neoliberal Multicultural Chile. Journal of Latin American Studies 42 (1): 59–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Richards, Patricia, and Jeffrey A. Gardner. 2013. Still Seeking Recognition: Mapuche Demands, State Violence, and Discrimination in Democratic Chile. Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies 8 (3): 255–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ríos Tobar, Marcela. 2003. Feminism is Socialism, Liberty and Much More’: Second-Wave Chilean Feminism and Its Contentious Relationship with Socialism. Journal of Women’s History 15 (3): 129–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Roberts, Elizabeth F.S. 2012. God’s Laboratory: Assisted Reproduction in the Andes. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  76. Rosemblatt, Karin Alejandra. 2000. Gendered Compromises: Political Cultures and the State in Chile, 1920–1950. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  77. Rossetti, Josefina. 1993. Las mujeres y el feminismo. Santiago de Chile: Cuadernos del Círculo de Estudios de la Mujer.Google Scholar
  78. Salazar, Gabriel, María Stella Toro, and Víctor Muñoz. 2002. Hombría y feminidad: construcción cultural de actores emergentes. Santiago de Chile: LOM.Google Scholar
  79. Schwartz, Adria. 1994. Taking the Nature Out of Mother. In Representations of Motherhood, ed. Donna Bassin, Margaret Honey, and Meryle Mahrer Kaplan, 240–255. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Serrano, Claudia. 1992. Estado, Mujer y Política Social en Chile. In Políticas Sociales, mujeres y gobierno local, ed. Dagmar Raczynski and Claudia Serrano, 195–216. Santiago de Chile: CIEPLAN.Google Scholar
  81. Stuven, Ana María, and Joaquín Fermandois H., eds. 2011. Historia de las mujeres en Chile. Santiago de Chile: Taurus.Google Scholar
  82. Tinsman, Heidi. 2002. Partners in Conflict: The Politics of Gender, Sexuality, and Labor in the Chilean Agrarian Reform, 1950–1973. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Townsend, Camilla. 1993. Refusing to Travel La Via Chilena: Working-Class Women in Allende’s Chile. Journal of Women’s History 4 (3): 43–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Valdés, Teresa, and Marisa Weinstein. 1993. Mujeres que sueñan: las organizaciones de pobladoras: 1973–1989. Santiago de Chile: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales.Google Scholar
  85. Valdés, Teresa, Marisa Weinstein, María Isabel Toledo, and Lilian Letelier. 1989. Centros de madres 1973–1989: ¿solo disciplinamiento? Santiago de Chile: Programa FLACSO-Chile.Google Scholar
  86. Valenzuela, María Elena. 1986. El fundamento de la dominación patriarcal en Chile. Paper presented at the Second Chilean Sociology Congress, Santiago, Chile.Google Scholar
  87. Veneros, Diana, and Paulina Ayala. 1997. Dos vertientes del movimiento proemancipación de la mujer en Chile: feminismo cristiano y feminismo laico. In Perfiles revelados, historias de mujeres en Chile, s. XIX–XX, ed. Diana Veneros, 41–62. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universidad de Santiago.Google Scholar
  88. Vergara, Marta. 1974. Memorias de una mujer irreverente. Santiago de Chile: Editora Nacional Gabriela Mistral.Google Scholar
  89. Vidal, Virginia. 1972. La emancipación de la mujer. Santiago de Chile: Quimantú.Google Scholar
  90. Waylen, Georgina. 1992. Rethinking Women’s Political Participation and Protest: Chile 1970–1990. Political Studies 40 (2): 299–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Weinstein, Marisa. 1996. Estado, mujeres de sectores populares, y ciudadanía. Santiago: FLACSO-Chile.Google Scholar
  92. Zárate, María Soledad. 1999. Proteger a las madres: origen de un debate público, 1870–1920. Nomadías 1: 163–182.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations