ToCo: An Ontology for Representing Hybrid Telecommunication Networks

  • Qianru ZhouEmail author
  • Alasdair J. G. Gray
  • Stephen McLaughlin
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11503)


The TOUCAN project proposed an ontology for telecommunication networks with hybrid technologies – the TOUCAN Ontology (ToCo), available at, as well as a knowledge design pattern Device-Interface-Link (DIL) pattern. The core classes and relationships forming the ontology are discussed in detail. The ToCo ontology can describe the physical infrastructure, quality of channel, services and users in heterogeneous telecommunication networks which span multiple technology domains. The DIL pattern is observed and summarised when modelling networks with various technology domains. Examples and use cases of ToCo are presented for demonstration.


Linked data Semantic web Ontology Hybrid telecommunication network Knowledge based system 



This research was supported by the EPSRC TOUCAN project (Grant No. EP/L020009/1).


  1. 1.
    Shenker, S., Casado, M., Koponen, T., McKeown, N.: The future of networking, and the past of protocols (2011)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rexford, J.: The networking philosopher’s problem, vol. 41, pp. 5–9. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cleary, D., Danev, B., O’Donoghue, D.: Using ontologies to simplify wireless network configuration. In: FOMI (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Villalonga, C., et al.: Mobile ontology: towards a standardized semantic model for the mobile domain. In: Di Nitto, E., Ripeanu, M. (eds.) ICSOC 2007. LNCS, vol. 4907, pp. 248–257. Springer, Heidelberg (2009). Scholar
  5. 5.
    Devitt, A., Danev, B., Matusikova, K.: Ontology-driven automatic construction of bayesian networks for telecommunication network management. In: FOMI (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    De Vergara, J.E.L., Guerrero, A., Villagrá, V.A., Berrocal, J.: Ontology-based network management: study cases and lessons learned. J. Netw. Syst. Manage. 17(3), 234–254 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guerrero, A., Villagrá, V.A., de Vergara, J.E.L., Berrocal, J.: Ontology-based integration of management behaviour and information definitions using SWRL and OWL. In: Schönwälder, J., Serrat, J. (eds.) DSOM 2005. LNCS, vol. 3775, pp. 12–23. Springer, Heidelberg (2005). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guerrero, A., Villagrá, V.A., de Vergara, J.E.L., Sánchez-Macián, A., Berrocal, J.: Ontology-based policy refinement using SWRL rules for management information definitions in OWL. In: State, R., van der Meer, S., O’Sullivan, D., Pfeifer, T. (eds.) DSOM 2006. LNCS, vol. 4269, pp. 227–232. Springer, Heidelberg (2006). Scholar
  9. 9.
    Strassner, J., et al.: The design of a new policy model to support ontology-driven reasoning for autonomic networking. J. Netw. Syst. Manage. 17(1–2), 5–32 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xiao, D., Xu, H.: An integration of ontology-based and policy-based network management for automation. In: IEEE ICIEA 2006, pp. 27–27 (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clark, D.D.: Policy routing in internet protocols, Technical report, Internet Request for Comments 1102 (1989)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Braun, H.-W.: Models of policy based routing, Technical report (1989)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Steenstrup, M.: An architecture for inter-domain policy routing (1993)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Benyon, D.: Information and data modelling. McGraw-Hill Higher Education (1996)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dijkstra, F., Andree, B., Koymans, K., van der Ham, J., et al.: Introduction to ITU-T recommendation, p. 805 (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Houidi, Z.B.: A knowledge-based systems approach to reason about networking. In: ACM HotNets, pp. 22–28 (2016)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fallon, L., O’Sullivan, D.: Using a semantic knowledge base for communication service quality management in home area networks. In: IEEE NOMS 2012, pp. 43–51 (2012)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Noy, N.F., McGuinness, D.L., et al.: Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barcelos, P.P., Monteiro, M,E., Simões, R.D.M., Garcia, A.S., Segatto, M.E.: OOTN-an ontology proposal for optical transport networks. In: IEEE ICUMT 2009, pp. 1–7 (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Poveda Villalon, M., Suárez-Figueroa, M.C., García-Castro, R., Gómez-Pérez, A.: A context ontology for mobile environments (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Uzun, A., Küpper, K.: Openmobilenetwork: extending the web of data by a dataset for mobile networks and devices. In: ACM ICSS 2012, pp. 17–24 (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Guizzardi, G., Wagner, G.: Using the unified foundational ontology (UFO) as a foundation for general conceptual modeling languages. In: Poli, R., Healy, M., Kameas, A. (eds) Theory and Applications of Ontology: Computer Applications, pp. 175–196. Springer, Dordrecht (2010). Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ham, J.J., et al.: A semantic model for complex computer networks: the network description language (2010)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gómez-Pérez, A.: Evaluation of ontologies. Int. J. Intell. Syst. 16(3), 391–409 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brank, J., Grobelnik, M., Mladenić, D.: A survey of ontology evaluation techniquesGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clark, P., Thompson, J., Porter, B.: Knowledge patterns. In: Staab, S., Studer, R. (eds) Handbook on Ontologies, pp. 191–207. Springer, Heidelberg (2004). Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gkoutos, G.V., Schofield, P.N., Hoehndorf, R.: The units ontology: a tool for integrating units of measurement in science. In: Database 2012 (2012). bas033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhou, Q., Gray, A., McLaughlin, S.: SeaNet: Semantic enabled autonomic management of software defined networks. (manuscript under review)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rotsos, C., et al.: Reasonet: inferring network policies using ontologies. In: NetSoft 2018 (2018)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhou, Q., McLaughlin, S., Gray, A., Wu, S., Wang, C.: Lost silence: an emergency response early detection service through continuous processing of telecommunication data streams. In: Web Stream Processing Workshop, ISWC, Joint Proceedings of WSP and WOMoCoE, pp. 33–47 (2017)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhou, Q., Gray, A., McLaughlin, S.: Sara: semantic access point resource allocation service. In: IEEE WD (2019)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of GlasgowGlasgowUK
  2. 2.Heriot-Watt UniversityEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations