Advertisement

Climate Change Impact on the Arctic Economy

  • Lasse H. PetterssonEmail author
  • Anton G. Kjelaas
  • Dmitry V. Kovalevsky
  • Klaus Hasselmann
Chapter
Part of the Springer Polar Sciences book series (SPPS)

The Arctic is intimately coupled to the global climate through its impacts on atmospheric and oceanic circulation, including via changes in the sea ice cover. Changes in the Arctic trigger concurrent processes that can have an impact also far beyond the Arctic region itself, e.g. impact on the East Asian Summer Monsoon System (Guo et al. 2014). Future changes in the Arctic may alter our understanding of many currently-understood weather and climate processes, see Chap.  10in this book, with significant impacts on lives and livelihoods, not just in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions, but also in large areas around the Earth. In Europe and Asia there is a growing concern in understanding how polar change will impact lower latitude climate and the socio-economy. Consequently, a better and multidisciplinary understanding of Arctic processes, mutual feedbacks and their predictability is needed. This can be achieved through enhancing the operational capacity for monitoring of the polar...

References

  1. 75 years of NSR – Press-Release. (2008). 75 years of the Northern Sea Route – AARI. http://www.aari.ru/docs/presssrelease/2008.02.21. Accessed 16.12.2011. (in Russian).
  2. Agnarsson, S., & Arnason, R. (2003). The role of the fishing industry in the Icelandic economy: An historical examination (Working Paper W03:07). Institute of Economic Studies, University of Iceland. Reykjavik – 24 pp.Google Scholar
  3. AMAP. (2013). Arctic monitoring and assessment programme, Arctic Ocean Acidification Assessment: Key Findings. https://www.amap.no/documents/doc/amap-arctic-ocean-acidification-assessment-key-findings/809. Checked 08.03.19.
  4. Anisimov, O. A., Vaughan, D. G., Callaghan, T. V., Furgal, C., Marchant, H., Prowse, T. D., Vilhjalsson, H., & Walsh, J. E. (2007). Polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic). In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 653–685). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. ASM. (2016). Joint statement of the Ministers on the occasion of the first White House Arctic Science Ministerial. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/09/28/joint-statement-ministers. Checked 12.03.2019.
  6. ASM. (2018). Joint statement of the Ministers on the occasion of the second Arctic science ministerial. https://www.arcticscienceministerial.org/files/ASM2_Joint_Statement.pdf. Checked 12.03.2019, 16 p.
  7. Balmasov, S. (2019). Preliminary report for winter navigation period in the NSR waters from 1st January to 30th June 2018. Presentation available at http://arctic-lio.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/NSR_winter_2018_short.pdf. Checked 28.02.19.
  8. Bekkers, E., Francois, J. F., & Rojas-Romagosa, H. (2018). Melting ice caps and the economic impact of opening the Northern Sea route. The Econometrics Journal, 128, 1095–1127.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ecoj.12460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bird, K. J., Charpentier, R. R., Gautier, D. L., Houseknecht, D. W., Klett, T. R., Pitman, J. K., Moore, T. E., Schenk, C. J., Tennyson, M. E., Wandrey, C. J. (2008). Circum-Arctic resource appraisal: Estimates of undiscovered oil and gas North of the Arctic Circle. Fact sheet at https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3049/. Checked 10.01.2019.
  10. Buixadé Farré, A., Stephenson, S. R., Chen, L., Czub, M., Dai, Y., Demchev, D., Efimov, Y., Graczyk, P., Grythe, H., Keil, K., Kivekäs, N., Kumar, N., Liu, N., Matelenok, I., Myksvoll, M., O’Leary, D., Olsen, J., Sachin Pavithran, A. P., Petersen, E., Raspotnik, A., Ryzhov, I., Solski, J., Suo, L., Troein, C., Valeeva, V., van Rijckevorsel, J., & Wighting, J. (2014). Commercial Arctic shipping through the northeast passage: Routes, resources, governance, technology, and infrastructure. Polar Geography, 37(4), 298–324.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1088937X.2014.965769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carmack, E. C., & Macdonald, R. W. (2002). Oceanography of the Canadian shelf of the Beaufort Sea: A setting for marine life. Arctic, 55, 29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CCRA: UK climate change risk assessment. (2012). Government report.Google Scholar
  13. Chaney, T. (2013). The gravity equation in international trade: An explanation (NBER Working Paper Series. Working Paper 19285). http://www.nber.org/papers/w19285
  14. Crépin, A. S., Karcher, M., & Gascard, J. C. (2017). Arctic climate change, economy and society (ACCESS): Integrated perspectives. Ambio, 46(Suppl 3), 341–354.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-017-0953-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dasgputa, P., & Heal, G. (1974). The optimal depletion of exhaustible resources. Review of Economic Studies, 41, 3–28., Symposium on the Economics of Exhaustible Resources.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2296369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duesund, J. M. (2015). Arctic offshore oil, gas outlook, Press release Rystad Energy. https://www.rystadenergy.com/newsevents/news/press-releases/arctic-offshore-oil-and-gas-outlook/. Checked 10.01.2019.
  17. Eaton, J., & Kortum, S. (2002). Technology, geography, and trade. Econometrica, 70, 1741–1779.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0262.00352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Edwards, M., & Richardson, A. J. (2004). Impact of climate change on marine pelagic phenology and trophic mismatch. Nature, 430, 881–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eskeland, G. S., & Flottorp, L. S. (2006). Climate change in the Arctic: A discussion of the impact on economic activity. In S. Glomsrød & I. Aslaksen (Eds.), The economy of the North (pp. 81–94). Oslo: Statistics Norway.Google Scholar
  20. Fossheim, M., Primicerio, R., Johannesen, E., Ingvaldsen, R. B., Aschan, M. M., & Dolgov, A. V. (2015). Recent warming leads to a rapid borealization of fish communities in the Arctic. Nature Climate Change, 5, 673–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Foster, G. L., Royer, D. L., & Lunt, D. J. (2017). Future climate forcing potentially without precedent in the last 420 million years. Nature Communications, 8, 14845.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fujita, M., Krugman, P., & Venables, A. J. (1999). The spatial economy. Cities, regions, and international trade. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 382 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Glomsrød, S., Duhaime, G., & Aslaksen, I. (2017). The economy of the North 2015. Statistical analyses 151. Statistics Norway, ISBN (online) 978-82-537-9509-6. p. 168.Google Scholar
  24. Gottinger, H. W. (1998). Global environmental economics. Boston: Springer. 326 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guo, D., Gao, Y., Bethke, I., Gong, D., Johannessen, O. M., & Wang, H. (2014). Mechanism on how the spring Arctic sea ice impacts the East Asian summer monsoon. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 115(1–2), 107–119. Springer-Link.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Harri, A.-M., Johannessen, J., Nousiainen, T., Pettersson, L., Luojus, K., Arslan, A. N., Mäkynen, M., Haukka, H., Pilli-Sihvola, K., Takala, M., Ekman, J., Sundström, A.-M., Pulsifer, P., & Larsen, J.-R. (2018, November). Prioritized needs and interests over the Arctic Region. Arctic Mission System Study led by Thales Alenia Space (Tech. note 1.1 to ESA). 106 p.Google Scholar
  27. Hartmann, D. (2015). Global physical climatology (2nd ed.). Elsevier Science. 498 p.Google Scholar
  28. Hasselmann, K. (2013). Detecting and responding to climate change. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 65, 20088.  https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.20088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hasselmann, K., & Kovalevsky, D. V. (2013). Simulating animal spirits in actor-based environmental models. Environmental Modelling & Software, 44, 10–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.04.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haug, T., Bogstad, B., Chierici, M., Gjøsæter, H., Hallfredsson, E. H., Høines, Å. S., Hoel, A. H., Ingvaldsen, R. B., Jørgensen, L. L., Knutsen, T., Loeng, H., Naustvoll, L. J., Røttingen, I., & Sunnanå, K. (2017). Future harvest of living resources in the Arctic Ocean north of the Nordic and Barents Seas: A review of possibilities and constraints. Fisheries Research, 188(Ja), 38–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2016.12.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ho, J. (2010). The implications of Arctic sea ice decline on shipping. Marine Policy, 34, 713–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Höök, M., & Tang, X. (2013). Depletion of fossil fuels and anthropogenic climate change – A review. Energy Policy, 52, 797–809.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.10.046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hooss, G., Voss, R., Hasselmann, K., Maier-Reimer, E., & Joos, F. (2001). A nonlinear impulse response model of the coupled carbon cycle-climate system (NICCS). Climate Dynamics, 18, 189–202.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s003820100170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hop, H., & Gjøsæter, H. (2013). Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and caplin (Mallotusvillosus) as key species in marine food webs of the Arctic and the Barents Sea. Marine Biology Research, 9, 878–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hotelling, H. (1931). The economics of exhaustible resources. Journal of Political Economy, 39(2), 137–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huse, G., & Ellingsen, I. (2008). Capelin migrations and climate change – A modelling analysis. Climatic Change, 87, 177–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. IEA. (2018). World energy outlook 2018. Paris: International Energy Agency. Report released 13 November 2018. Available at: https://webstore.iea.org/world-energy-outlook-2018. Checked 10.01.2019.Google Scholar
  38. IMO. (2017). International code for ships operating in polar waters (polar code). MEPC 68/21/Add., Annex 10. Available at: http://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/HotTopics/polar/Documents/POLAR%20CODE%20TEXT%20AS%20ADOPTED.pdf. Checked 28.02.19.
  39. Instanes, A., Anisimov, O., Brigham, L., Goering, D., Ladanyi, B., Larsen, J. O., & Khrustalev, L. N. (2005). Infrastructure: Buildings, support systems, and industrial facilities. In C. Symon, L. Arris, & B. Heal (Eds.), Arctic climate impact assessment, ACIA (pp. 907–944). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. IPCC: Fifth Assessment Report. (2014). Available from http://www.ipcc.ch/
  41. IPCC: Fourth Assessment Report. (2007). Available from http://www.ipcc.ch/
  42. IPCC: Third Assessment Report. (2001). Available from http://www.ipcc.ch/
  43. Johannessen, O. M., & Miles, M. W. (2010). Critical vulnerabilities of marine and sea ice-based ecosystems in the high Arctic. Regional Environmental Change, 11, 239–248.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-010-0186-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Johannessen, O. M., Alexandrov, V. Y., Frolov, I. Y., Sandven, S., Bobylev, L. P., Pettersson, L. H., Kloster, K., Smirnov, V. G., Mironov, Y. U., & Babich, N. G. (2007). Remote sensing of sea ice in the Northern Sea route: Studies and applications. Chichester: Springer-Praxis. 477 p.Google Scholar
  45. Jóhannsdóttir, L., & Cook, D. (2015). An insurance perspective on Arctic opportunities and risks: Hydrocarbon exploration and shipping (Working Paper). Institute of International Affairs, Centre for Arctic Policy Studies, University of Iceland. 30 pages.Google Scholar
  46. Johnsen, G., Volent, Z., Sakshaug, E., Sigernes, F., & Pettersson, L. (2009). Chapter 6: Remote sensing in the Barents Sea. In E. Sakshaug, G. Johnsen, & K. Kovacs (Eds.), Ecosystem Barents Sea (pp. 139–166). Trondheim: Tapir Academic Press. 587 pp. ISBN:9788251924610.Google Scholar
  47. Khon, V. C., & Mokhov, I. I. (2010). Cliamte change in the Artcic and projected Arctic marine navigation conditions in the 21st century. Izvestiya RAS. Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 46(1), 19–25.Google Scholar
  48. Khon, V. C., Mokhov, I. I., Latif, M., Semenov, V. A., & Park, W. (2010). Perspectives of Northern Sea Route and Northwest Passage in the twenty-first century. Climatic Change, 100, 757–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kiiski, T. (2017). Feasibility of commercial cargo shipping along the Northern Sea Route. Ph.D. thesis, University of Turku, Annales Universitatis Turkuensis.Google Scholar
  50. Kovalevsky, D. V., & Hasselmann, K. (2014, September, 18–19). Integrated Assessment modelling of global impacts of shrinking Arctic sea ice. In: All-Russian Conference with International Participation “State of Arctic Seas and Territories under Conditions of Climate Change”. Arkhangelsk: Northern (Arctic) Federal University.Google Scholar
  51. Krautkraemer, J. A. (1985). Optimal growth, resource amenities and the preservation of natural environments. Review of Economic Studies, 52(1), 153–169.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2297476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lenton, T., Wilkinson, P., Edwards, N., Marsh, R., Price, J., Ridgwell, A., Shepherd, J., & Cox, S. J. (2006). Millennial timescale carbon cycle and climate change in an efficient earth system model. Climate Dynamics, 26, 687–711.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-006-0109-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Litovkin, D. (2012). Norilsk Nickel’s ice-breaking ships reach the Russian ports others can’t. The Telegraph, 05 November 2012.Google Scholar
  54. Liu, M., & Kronbak, J. (2010). The potential economic viability of using the Northern Sea Route (NSR) as an alternative route between Asia and Europe. Journal of Transport Geography, 18, 434–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Loeng, H., Brander, K., Carmack, E., Denisenko, S., Drinkwater, K., Hansen, B., Kovacs, K., Livingston, P., McLaughlin, F., & Sakshaug, E. (2005). Marine systems. In C. Symon, L. Arris, & B. Heal (Eds.), Arctic climate impact assessment, ACIA (pp. 453–538). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Makarevich, P. R., & Ishkulov, D. G. (2010). The structure and biodiversity of pelagic and ground biocenosis of the Barents Sea under conditions of changing climate. Herald of MSTU, 13(4/1), 633–640. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  57. Matishov, G. G., Timofeev, S. P., Drobysheva, S. S., & Ryzhov, V. M. (1994). Evolution of ecosystems and biogeography of the European Arctic seas. St. Petersburg: Nauka. 220 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  58. Matishov, G. G., Dzenyuk, S. L., Moiseev, D. V., & Zhichkin, A. P. (2010). Climate-related change of marine ecosystems of the European Arctic. Arctic and Antarctic Research, 86(3), 7–21. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  59. Misund, O. A., Heggland, K., Skogseth, R., Falck, E., Gjøsæter, H., Sundet, J., Watne, J., & Lønne, O. J. (2016). Norwegian fisheries in the Svalbard zone since 1980. Regulations, profitability and warming waters affect landings. Polar Science, 10(3), 312–322.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polar.2016.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nazarov, V. I., & Kalist, L. V. (2004). Economic potential of hydrocarbon resources of the Arctic shelf and problems of their development. In: Proceedings of the International Conference “Oil and Gas of the Arctic Shelf 2004”. http://helion-ltd.ru/eco-pot-13/. Accessed 11.12.2011. (in Russian).
  61. NDP. (2017). Geological assessment of petroleum resources in eastern parts of Barents Sea north 2017. Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NDP). http://www.npd.no/en/Publications/Reports/Geological-assessment-of-petroleum-resources%2D%2D-Barents-Sea-north-2017/. Checked 10.01.19.
  62. Nelder, C. (2009). Where oil’s price goes from here. Business Insider. News story at: https://www.businessinsider.com/where-oils-goes-from-here-2009-5?r=US&IR=T&IR=T. Checked 10.01. 2019.
  63. NPC – National Petroleum Council. (2015). Arctic potential. Conference presentation at: https://www.trendsetterengineering.com/media/files/files/46c6baae/April_7_9_Alaska_NPC_Arctic_Study_Presentation_60_minute_version_00000002_.pdf. Checked 10.01.2019.
  64. NSRA-web. (n.d.). Federal state Institution “The Northern Sea Route Administration”. Object of activity and functions of NSRA. http://www.nsra.ru/en/glavnaya/celi_funktsii.html. Checked 08.03.19.
  65. Østreng, W., Eger, K. M., Fløistad, B., Jørgensen-Dahl, A., Lothe, L., Mejlaender-Larsen, M., & Wergeland, T. (2013). Shipping in Arctic waters – A comparison of the northeast, northwest and trans polar passages. Berlin., 414 p: Springer-Verlag.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16790-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ping, S., & Lanteigne, M. (2015). Chinas developing Arctic policies: Myths and misconceptions. Journal of China and International Relations, 3, 1–25.Google Scholar
  67. Polaris. (2016). Polaris study: Next generation observing systems for the Polar regions. D2.1 gap and impact analysis. Report to ESA, April 2016. 181 p. Available at: https://www.arcticobserving.org/images/pdf/Board_meetings/2016_Fairbanks/16_Final-Gaps-and-Impact-Report%2D%2D-2016-04-22.pdf. Checked 28.02.19.
  68. Pozdnyakov, D., Pettersson, L. H., & Korosov, A. (2017). Exploring the marine ecology from space: Experience from Russian-Norwegian cooperation. Springer International Publisher, Book no. 7 in Nansen Centers polar series. 215 p.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30075-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Regjeringen. (2015). Declaration concerning the prevention of un regulated high seas fishing in the central Arctic ocean https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/departementene/ud/vedlegg/folkerett/declaration-on-arctic-fisheries-16-july-2015.pdf. Checked 08.03.19.
  70. Regjeringen. (2018). Enighet om norsk-russisk kvoteavtale for 2019. (in Norwegian). https://www.regjeringen.no/no/aktuelt/enighet-om-norsk-russisk-kvoteavtale-for-2019/id2616099/. Checked 08.03.19.
  71. Sakshaug, E. (2003). Primary and secondary production in Arctic seas. In R. Stein & R. W. Macdonald (Eds.), The organic carbon cycle in the Arctic Ocean (pp. 57–81). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  72. Sakshaug, E., Johnsen, G., & Kovacs, K. (Eds.). (2009). Ecosystem Barents Sea. Trondheim: Tapir Academic Press. 587 pp.Google Scholar
  73. Selin, V. S., & Bashmakova, E. P. (2010). The importance of northern and arctic regions under new geoeconomic conditions of the development of Russia. Region: Economy and Sociology, 3, 23–29. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  74. Selin, V. S., & Vasil’yev, V. V. (2011). Trends and risks of economic activity in the Arctic under conditions of long-term climate change. The Arctic and the North, 1, 125–133. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  75. Shephard, G. E., Dalen, K., Peldszus, R., Aparicio, S., Beumer, L., Birkeland, R., Gkikas, N., Kourantidou, M., Ktenas, P., Linde, P. W., Marazzi, F., Pincinato, R. B. M., Radianti, J., Schartmüller, B., Stübner, E. I., Varnajot, A., Vullierme, M., & Zhilina, I. (2016). Assessing the added value of the recent declaration on unregulated fishing for sustainable governance of the Central Arctic Ocean. Marine Policy, 66, 50–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.01.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. SRES. (2000). Special report on emissions scenarios. Report prepared for the Third Assessment Report. Available from: http://www.ipcc.ch/
  77. Stephenson, S. R., Wang, W., Zender, C. S., Wang, H., Davis, S. J., & Rasch, P. J. (2018). Climatic responses to future trans-Arctic shipping. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 9898–9908.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL078969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. The World Bank. (2011). Weather index insurance for agriculture: Guidance for development practitioners. Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper 50. 102 p.Google Scholar
  79. Tinbergen, J. (1962). Shaping the world economy: An analysis of world trade flows. New York Twentieth Century Fund, 5(1., 1962), 27–30.Google Scholar
  80. Tokarska, K. B., Gillett, N. P., Weaver, A. J., Arora, V. K., & Eby, M. (2016). The climate response to five trillion tonnes of carbon. Nature Climate Change, 6, 851.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Toresen, R., & Østvedt, O. (2000). Variation in abundance of Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, Clupeidae) throughout the 20th century and the influence of climatic fluctuations. Fish and Fisheries, 1, 231–256.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2000.00022.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ulph, A., & Ulph, D. (1994). The optimal time path of a carbon tax. Oxford Economic Papers, 46(Supplement 1), 857–868.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oep/46.Supplement1.857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. UNCTAD. (2015). Review of maritime transport 2015. United Nations conference on trade and development (UNCTAD/RMT/2015). New York: United Nations Publication. 122 p.Google Scholar
  84. Verny, J., & Grigentin, C. (2009). Container shipping on the Northern Sea route. International Journal of Production Economics, 122, 107–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vilhjálmsson, H., Håkon Hoel, A., Agnarsson, S., Arnason, R., Carscadden, J. E., Eide, A., Fluharty, D., Hønneland, G., Hvingel, C., Jakobsson, J., Lilly, G., Nakken, O., Radchenko, V., Ramstad, S., Schrank, W., Vestergaard, N., & Wilderbuer, T. (2005). Fisheries and aquaculture. In C. Symon, L. Arris, & B. Heal (Eds.), Arctic climate impact assessment, ACIA (pp. 691–780). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Wassmann, P., Duarte, C. M., Agusti, S., & Sejr, M. K. (2011). Footprints of climate change in the Arctic marine ecosystem. Global Change Biology, 17, 1235–1249.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02311.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Weber, M., Barth, V., & Hasselmann, K. (2005). A multi-actor dynamic integrated assessment model (MADIAM) of induced technological change and sustainable economic growth. Ecological Economics, 54(2–3), 306–327.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.12.035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Whiteman, G., Hope, C., & Wadhams, P. (2013). Climate science: Vast costs of Arctic change. Nature, 499(7459), 401.  https://doi.org/10.1038/499401a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wilkinson, M. D., Dumontier, M., Aalbersberg, I. J. J., Appleton, G., Axton, M., Baak, A., Blomberg, N., Boiten, J. W., da Silva Santos, L. B., Bourne, P. E., Bouwman, J., Brookes, A. J., Clark, T., Crosas, M., Dillo, I., Dumon, O., Edmunds, S., Evelo, C. T., Finkers, R., Gonzalez-Beltran, A., Gray, A. J. G., Groth, P., Goble, C., Grethe, J. S., Heringa, J., 'tHoen, P. A. C., Hooft, R., Kuhn, T., Kok, R., Kok, J., Lusher, S. J., Martone, M. E., Mons, A., Packer, A. L., Persson, B., Rocca-Serra, P., Roos, M., van Schaik, R., Sansone, S. A., Schultes, E., Sengstag, T., Slater, T., Strawn, G., Swertz, M. A., Thompson, M., Van Der Lei, J., Van Mulligen, E., Velterop, J., Waagmeester, A., Wittenburg, P., Wolstencroft, K., Zhao, J., & Mons, B. (2016). The FAIR guiding principles for scientific data management and stewardship. Scientific Data, 3, 160018.  https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2016.18, 9 p.
  90. Withagen, C. (1994). Pollution and exhaustibility of fossil fuels. Resource and Energy Economics, 16(3), 235–242.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0928-7655(94)90007-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lasse H. Pettersson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anton G. Kjelaas
    • 2
  • Dmitry V. Kovalevsky
    • 3
  • Klaus Hasselmann
    • 4
  1. 1.Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing CenterBergenNorway
  2. 2.Norwegian Scientific Academy for Polar ResearchNesoddtangenNorway
  3. 3.Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), Helmholtz-ZentrumGeesthachtGermany
  4. 4.Max Planck Institute for MeteorologyHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations