Multifocal Intraocular Lenses: Fyodorov Gradiol

  • Boris Malyugin
  • Tatiana Morozova
  • Valentin Cherednik
Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)


Chapter Fyodorov Gradiol: gradient refractive index optics multifocal IOL contains historical and actual information about gradient IOL – theoretical background, laboratory research, functional results of clinical studies and new approaches in the multifocal IOL’s assessment.

Currently available MIOLs have variable refractive power due to the complex shape of anterior and/or posterior surfaces; however, gradient refractive index multifocal lens (GRIN lens) is characterized by varying refractive power due to a change of refractive index in the inner structure of the IOL.

The main advantages of gradient IOL are the following: optics has smooth surfaces which define no need in lens surfaces orientation while implanting; at the same time it diminishes possibility of mechanical trauma, inner components, and surface damage in case of YAG-PCO treatment. It also provides possibility of low incidence of optical phenomena and good visual function at far, near, and intermediate distances under variable illuminance conditions.

The clinical study found high functional results and quality of vision after implantation of new generation Gradiol, high subjective satisfaction, and low incidence of optical phenomena.

Three months after implantation mean uncorrected distance VA was 0.90, mean uncorrected near VA 0.65, mean uncorrected intermediate VA 0.58, mean corrected distance VA 0.98, mean corrected near VA 0.84, and mean corrected intermediate VA 0.78. Mean amplitude of pseudoaccommodation was 4,75°D. Eighty-six percent of patients with Gradiol did not need glasses for daily activities, driving, and reading. Questionnaire revealed optical phenomena in post-op in 5%.


Gradient IOL GRIN lens Gradiol MIOL Multifocal IOL Cataract surgery 


Conflict of Interest

Boris Malyugin, Tatiana Morozova, and Valentin Cherednik have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Boris Malyugin
    • 1
  • Tatiana Morozova
    • 2
  • Valentin Cherednik
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Cataract and Implant SurgeryS. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery InstitutionMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Ophthalmology, Institute of Biomedical Problems (BMP), The State Scientific Center of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Lobachevsky State UniversityNizhny NovgorodRussia

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