• Susan S. BakerEmail author


Nutrition is the underpinning of life itself. Good nutrition has consequences for health, societal well-being, economic stability, and advancements. Poor nutrition has a direct and measurable impact on all aspects of human functioning, especially in disease states and especially for children. This chapter reviews basic nutrition and includes the function, deficiency, and requirements for individual nutrients. The chapter also addresses specific needs for premature infants, term infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents and underscores the need for nutrition in specific disease states.


Vitamins Minerals Nutrition support Formula Breastfeeding Enteral feeds Parenteral nutrition (PN) Toddlers Adolescents Vegetarian diets 



Adequate intake: the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people that are assumed to be adequate—used when there is not enough data to determine an RDA


Dietary reference intake


United States Department of Agriculture


Tolerable upper intake level: the highest average daily intake that is unlikely to pose a risk of adverse health effects for almost all individuals in the general population


Recommended dietary allowance: the average daily level of intake of a nutrient sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of 97–99% of healthy people

Suggested Reading

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. In: Kleinman RE, Greer FR, editors. Pediatric nutrition. 7th ed. Elk Grove: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2014.Google Scholar
  2. Dietary reference intakes tables and application. Washington DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Health and Medicine Division. (n.d.) Last updated 16 Jan 2018. Accessed 26 Nov 2018.
  3. Duggan C, Watkins JB, Koletzko B, Walker WA, editors. Nutrition in pediatrics: basic science, clinical applications. 5th ed. Shelton: People’s Publishing House; 2016.Google Scholar
  4. Stipanuk MH, Caudill MA. Biochemical, physiological and molecular aspects of human nutrition. 4th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier/Saunders; 2019.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at BuffaloState University of New YorkBuffaloUSA

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