Nutrition is the underpinning of life itself. Good nutrition has consequences for health, societal well-being, economic stability, and advancements. Poor nutrition has a direct and measurable impact on all aspects of human functioning, especially in disease states and especially for children. This chapter reviews basic nutrition and includes the function, deficiency, and requirements for individual nutrients. The chapter also addresses specific needs for premature infants, term infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents and underscores the need for nutrition in specific disease states.
KeywordsVitamins Minerals Nutrition support Formula Breastfeeding Enteral feeds Parenteral nutrition (PN) Toddlers Adolescents Vegetarian diets
Adequate intake: the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people that are assumed to be adequate—used when there is not enough data to determine an RDA
Dietary reference intake
United States Department of Agriculture
Tolerable upper intake level: the highest average daily intake that is unlikely to pose a risk of adverse health effects for almost all individuals in the general population
Recommended dietary allowance: the average daily level of intake of a nutrient sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of 97–99% of healthy people
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