Diseases of the eye can be organ specific or represent larger systemic involvement. Many eye disorders impact vision, which greatly affects childhood development. If recognized early, many diseases can be treated, preventing lifelong loss of vision. Neonatal infections, retinopathy of prematurity, amblyopia, and retinoblastoma are among the many disorders that can be treated if appropriately diagnosed. Unrecognized eye disorders can lead to a cascade of medical issues and sometimes even death. Although there is no “cure” for some diagnoses such as nystagmus or retinal dystrophies, early and accurate recognition can lead to earlier therapeutics that may improve the visual ability of the child for their lifetime.
KeywordsNystagmus Conjunctivitis Atopic/seasonal allergic conjunctivitis Anterior uveitis Orbital cellulitis (orbital abscess) Chalazion Congenital ptosis Congenital glaucoma Congenital cataract Retinoblastoma (RB) Papilledema Optic nerve neuritis or papillitis Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) Orbital fracture Hyphema Strabismus Amblyopia
The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Violeta Radenovich MD, MPH, Children’s Eye Center of El Paso, El Paso, Texas, to the 1st edition of this chapter, many of which have been incorporated into this edition as well.
SLR was supported by an unrestricted grant from Research to Support Blindness (New York, NY).
The views expressed in this chapter are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. CDR Miller is a military service member. This work was prepared as part of his official duties. Title 17 U.S.C. 105 provides that “Copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the United States Government.” Title 17 U.S.C. 101 defines a United States Government work as a work prepared by a military service member as part of that person’s official duties.
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