• Kyle E. Miller
  • Shira L. RobbinsEmail author


Diseases of the eye can be organ specific or represent larger systemic involvement. Many eye disorders impact vision, which greatly affects childhood development. If recognized early, many diseases can be treated, preventing lifelong loss of vision. Neonatal infections, retinopathy of prematurity, amblyopia, and retinoblastoma are among the many disorders that can be treated if appropriately diagnosed. Unrecognized eye disorders can lead to a cascade of medical issues and sometimes even death. Although there is no “cure” for some diagnoses such as nystagmus or retinal dystrophies, early and accurate recognition can lead to earlier therapeutics that may improve the visual ability of the child for their lifetime.


Nystagmus Conjunctivitis Atopic/seasonal allergic conjunctivitis Anterior uveitis Orbital cellulitis (orbital abscess) Chalazion Congenital ptosis Congenital glaucoma Congenital cataract Retinoblastoma (RB) Papilledema Optic nerve neuritis or papillitis Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) Orbital fracture Hyphema Strabismus Amblyopia 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Violeta Radenovich MD, MPH, Children’s Eye Center of El Paso, El Paso, Texas, to the 1st edition of this chapter, many of which have been incorporated into this edition as well.

SLR was supported by an unrestricted grant from Research to Support Blindness (New York, NY).


The views expressed in this chapter are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. CDR Miller is a military service member. This work was prepared as part of his official duties. Title 17 U.S.C. 105 provides that “Copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the United States Government.” Title 17 U.S.C. 101 defines a United States Government work as a work prepared by a military service member as part of that person’s official duties.


  1. 1.
    Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine, Section On Ophthalmology, American Association of Certified Orthoptists; American Association For Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus; American Academy of Ophthalmology. Visual system assessment in infants, children, and young adults by pediatricians. Pediatrics. 2016;137(1):28–30.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Azari AA, Barney NP. Conjunctivitis: a systematic review of diagnosis and treatment. JAMA. 2013;310(16):1721–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cassidy J, Kivlin J, Lindsley C, Nocton J, Section on Rheumatology; Section on Ophthalmology. Ophthalmologic examinations in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pediatrics. 2006;117(5):1843–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Davenport KM, Patel AA. Cataracts. Pediatr Rev. 2011;32(2):82–3. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hartong DT, Berson EL, Dryja TP. Retinitis pigmentosa. Lancet. 2006;368:1795–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    World Health Organization. Preterm birth. Accessed 21 Sep 2018.
  7. 7.
    Gilbert C. Retinopathy of prematurity: a global perspective of the epidemics, population of babies at risk and implications for control. Early Hum Dev. 2008;84(2):77–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fierson WM, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Ophthalmology; American Academy of Ophthalmology; American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus; American Association of Certified Orthoptists. Screening examination of premature infants for retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatrics. 2013;131(1):189–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    International Committee for the Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity. The international classification of retinopathy of prematurity revisited. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123(7):991–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miller KE. Pediatric ocular trauma: An update. Current Ophthalmology Reports. 2017;5(2):107–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    American Academy of Ophthalmology. Growth and development of the eye. In: AAO basic and clinical science course. Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2011. p. 167–71.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Siu CR, Murphy KM. The development of human visual cortex and clinical implications. Eye Brain. 2018;10:25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shields JA, Shields CL. Rhabdomyosarcoma: review for the ophthalmologist. Surv Ophthalmol. 2003;48(1):39–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. American Academy of Ophthalmology Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Panel. Preferred practice pattern guidelines: pediatric eye evaluations. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2017. p. 189–227.Google Scholar
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Ophthalmology, Council on Children with Disabilities, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, and American Association of Certified Orthoptists. Joint statement—learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision. Pediatrics. 2009;124(2):837–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Donahue SP, Nixon CN, Section on Ophthalmology, American Academy of Pediatrics; Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics; American Academy of Ophthalmology; American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus; American Association of Certified Orthoptists. Visual system assessment in infants, children, and young adults by pediatricians. Pediatrics. 2016;137(1):28–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ehlers JP, Shah CP. Corneal abrasion. In: Ehlers JP, Shah CP, editors. The Wills eye manual: office and emergency room diagnosis and treatment of eye disease. 5th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott; 2008. p. 15–6.Google Scholar
  5. Harrison JR, English MG. Chlamydia trachomatis infant pneumonitis: comparison with matched controls and other infant pneumonitis. N Engl J Med. 1978;298(13):702–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Rapoza PA, Chandler JW. Neonatal conjunctivitis: diagnosis and treatment. In: Focal points 1988: clinical modules for ophthalmologists. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 1988. p. 5–6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyNaval Medical Center PortsmouthPortsmouthUSA
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyRatner Children’s Eye Center, University of California San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations