Fever, Headache and Photophobia

  • Crescent Darius Cossou-gbeto
  • Leila Dangou
  • Medeton Grâce Hounkpe
  • Josephiel Fortunato


The complement system has three activation pathways: the classical pathway, the mannose pathway, and the alternate pathway

Repeated occurrence of bacterial meningitis is associated with deficiency of common terminal pathway components: C5-C9, and properdin

Mannose-binding lectin deficits are associated with a broad spectrum of microorganisms

Plasma half-life of most complement products is short, preventing effective infectious prevention by replacement therapy

Acquired complement deficiencies can appear due to excessive consumption, as in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), decreased hepatic production, and less commonly loss in urine in severe chronic kidney disease or presence of auto-antibodies

Primary assay for detection of complement deficiencies should entail CH50, AP50, C3 and C4 measurement


Complement system Classical pathway Mannose pathway Alternate pathway CH50 


  1. 1.
    Tebruegge M, Curtis N. Epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of recurrent bacterial meningitis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21(3):519–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Rameix-Welti M-A, Chedani H, Blouin J, Alonso J-M, Fridman W-H, Fremeaux-Bacchi V. Infection par Neisseria meningitidis. Presse Méd. 2005;34(6):425–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Immune Deficiency Foundation. Complement deficiencies. In: Patient & family handbook for primary immunodeficiency diseases. 5th ed. USA: Immune Deficiency Foundation; 2015.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Crescent Darius Cossou-gbeto
    • 1
  • Leila Dangou
    • 2
  • Medeton Grâce Hounkpe
    • 3
  • Josephiel Fortunato
    • 4
  1. 1.Internal Medicine, Hematology and Oncology Department – Aix-en-Provence Hospital CenterAix-en-ProvenceFrance
  2. 2.Pediatric DepartementBethesda HospitalCotonouBenin
  3. 3.ENT DepartmentUniversity Hospital Hubert Koutoucou Maga of CotonouCotonouBenin
  4. 4.Pediatric DepartmentGoho Hospital Center of AbomeyAbomeyBénin

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