The paranasal sinuses are air-filled cavities, located inside the bones of the skull, with their ostia opening into the nasal cavity. The maxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid and frontal sinus, ethmoid sinus, and sphenoid sinus are named after the bone in which they are located. The anatomy of the paranasal sinuses is quite complex and prone to individual variation; however, basic surgical anatomy should be understood in order to avoid complications. The maxillary sinus is the largest paranasal sinus. Some variations of the maxillary sinus should be considered prior to surgery.
Other anatomic variations of the maxillary sinus include maxillary hypoplasia and atelectasis.
The ethmoid sinus is considered a labyrinthine structure, due to its complexity and individual variations. It consists of 3–18 cells, having a honeycomb appearance. The anteroposterior distance is 4–5 cm and it has a height of 2–3 cm, while its width is 0.5 cm anteriorly and 1.5 cm posteriorly, and its volume is 14 ml on average. The sphenoid sinus is located in the corpus of the sphenoid bone, located at the center of the skull base. The right and left sphenoid sinuses are separated from each other by the intersinus septum. Its vertical diameter is 20 mm, its transverse diameter is 18 mm, its anteroposterior diameter is 21 mm, and its volume is approximately 7.5 ml. The frontal sinus has close embryological and anatomic relationship with the ethmoid sinuses. The right and left frontal sinuses develop independently of one another, and they are frequently asymmetrical. Dominancy, hypoplasia, aplasia, or extensive pneumatization may be identified.
This chapter aims to present the anatomy of paranasal sinuses, emphasizing their surgical anatomic characteristics.
KeywordsParanasal sinus Maxillary Ethmoid Sphenoid Frontal Pneumatization
- 1.Çakır N. Otolaryngology head and neck surgery. Istanbul: Nobel Medical Bookstores; 1999.Google Scholar
- 2.Arıkan OK. Anatomy and physiology of the paranasal sinuses. In: Koç C, editor. Otolaryngology and head and neck surgery. Ankara: Güneş Bookstores; 2004.Google Scholar
- 4.Sargi ZB, Casiano RR. Surgical anatomy of the paranasal sinuses. In: Kountakis SE, Önerci M, editors. Rhinologic and sleep apnea surgical techniques. Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.Google Scholar
- 8.Bolger WE, Kennedy DW. Atelectasis of the maxillary sinus. J Respir Dis. 1992;13:1448–50.Google Scholar
- 10.Wood S, Sinus M. In: Youngs R, Evans K, Watson M, editors. The paranasal sinuses. London: Taylor & Francis; 2006.Google Scholar
- 11.Bolger E. Anatomy of the paranasal sinuses. In: Kennedy DW, Bolger WE, Zinreich SJ, editors. Sinus diseases. Istanbul: Nobel Medical Bookstores; 2003.Google Scholar
- 12.Karmody CS, Carter B, Vincent ME. Developmental anatomy of the maxillary sinus. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1997;84:723–80.Google Scholar
- 13.Stammberger H. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery: the Messerklinger technique. Philadelphia: BC Decker; 1991.Google Scholar
- 14.Nauman H. Patholische anatomic der chronischen rhinitis und sinisitis. In: Proceedings VIII International Congress of Otorhinolaryngology, Amsterdam, 1965. Excerpta Medica, p 12.Google Scholar
- 15.Keros S. Uber die praktische beteudung der Niveau-Unterschiede der lamina cribrosa des ethmoids. In: Nauman HH, editor. Head and neck surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1980.Google Scholar
- 18.Wyllie JW, Kern EB, Djalilian M. Isolated sphenoid sinusitis of the nose. Bailliere. London: Tindalland Cox; 1910.Google Scholar
- 25.Wormald PJ. Endoscopic Sinus surgery, anatomy, three-dimensional reconstruction, and surgical technique. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers; 2009.Google Scholar
- 26.Skinner D, White P. Anterior ethmoid sinus and frontal sinus. In: Youngs R, Evans K, Watson M, editors. The paranasal sinuses. London: Taylor & Francis; 2006.Google Scholar
- 32.Kuhn FA. Surgery of the frontal sinus in disease of the sinuses; diagnosis and management. In: Kennedy DW, editor. Diseases of the sinuses. London: BC Decker; 2001.Google Scholar