Advertisement

Epidemiology of Nasal Polyposis

  • Erkan Esen
  • Adin Selçuk
  • Desiderio Passali
Chapter

Abstract

Nasal polyps (NP) are benign, edematous masses growing into nasal cavity that could have multiple etiological factors. Basic etiological factor for polyp formation is chronic inflammatory change and thus stromal nasal and paranasal mucosa edema. All theories about NP formation try to explain the edema formation. Edema and mucosal inflammation may originate from trauma, bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, environmental irritants, or allergens. The prevalence of NP in the general population is unclear. It varies from 0.2% to 5.6%. Different diagnostic measurements and criteria may be responsible for this wide range. Additionally, age, gender, and such demographical factors affect the variability. Ethnic and genetic factors should also be taken into consideration. The prevalence of NP shows a wide range according to etiology. The most important data on the epidemiology of NP are obtained from NP etiology studies. For these reasons, in this chapter, epidemiological data are presented parallel to the etiological reasons and hypotheses of NP. There may be hereditary factors for NP but there is limited knowledge in this area. However, we have some evidence for genetic inheritance. Studies reported that up to 14% of patients with NP have a family history. A link has been indicated that NP and asthma have an association with HLA-A1B8 and HLA-A74 genes. The main hypotheses that lead to the development of NP will be discussed below with the current incidence and prevalence rates.

Keywords

Nasal polyps Chronic Inflammatory Hereditary factors Development Prevalence 

References

  1. 1.
    Hedman J, Kaprio J, Poussa T, Nieminen MM. Prevalence of asthma, aspirin intolerance, nasal polyposis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a population-based study. Int J Epidemiol. 1999;28:717–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Klossek JM, Neukirch F, Pribil C, Jankowski R, Serrano E, Chanal I, El Hasnaoui A. Prevalence of nasal polyposis in France: a cross-sectional, case-control study. Allergy. 2005;60:233–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cingi C, Demirbas D, Ural A. Nasal polyposis: an overview of differential diagnosis and treatment. Recent Patents Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2011;5(3):241–52.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Johansson L, Akerlund A, Holmberg K, Melen I, Bende M. Prevalence of nasal polyps in adults: the Skovde population-based study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2003;112:625–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Min YG, Jung HW, Kim HS, Park SK, Yoo KY. Prevalence and risk factors of chronic sinusitis in Korea: results of a nationwide survey. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1996;253:435–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Newton JR, Ah-See KW. A review of nasal polyposis. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008;4(2):507–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stammberger H. Endoscopic endonasal surgery—concepts in treatment of recurring Rhinosinusitis. Part II. Surgical Technique Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1986;94(2):147–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Greisner WA, Settipane GA. Hereditary factor for nasal polyps. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 95, 1(part 2):205.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Luxenburger W, Posch G, Berghold A. HLA patterns in patients with nasal polyposis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2000;257:137–9.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Moloney JR, Oliver RTD. HLA antigens, nasal polyps and asthma. Clin Otolaryngol. 1980;5:183–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Settipane GA. Epidemiology of nasal polyps. Allergy Asthma Proc. 1996;17:231–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Drake-Lee A. Nasal polyps in identical twins. J Laryngol Otol. 1992;106:1084–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rugina M, Serrano E, Klossek JM, Crampette L, Stoll D, Bebear JP, Perrahia M, Rouvier P, Peynegre R. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of nasal polyposis in France; the ORL group experience. Rhinology. 2002;40:75–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lockey RF, Rucknagel DL, Vanselow NA. Familial occurrence of asthma, nasal polyps and aspirin intolerance. Ann Intern Med. 1973;78:57–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Önerci TM, Ferguson BJ. Nasal polyposis. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2010.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hadfield PJ, Rowe Jones JM, Mackay IS. The prevalence of nasal polyps in adults with cystic fibrosis. Clin Otolaryngol. 2000;25:19–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stern RC, Boat TF, Wood RE, Matthews LW, Doershuk CF. Treatment and prognosis of nasal polyps in cystic fibrosis. Am J Dis Child. 1982;136:1067–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cepero R, Smith RJH, Catlin FI, Bressler KL, Furuta GT, Shandera KC. Cystic fibrosis–an otolaryngologic perspective. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1987;97:356–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Atzellus BA. Disorders of ciliary motility. Hosp Pract. 1986;21:73–80.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rossman CM, Lee RM, Forrest JB, Newhouse MT. Nasal ciliary ultrastructure and function in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia compared with that in normal subjects and in subjects with various respiratory diseases. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1984;129:161–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sturgess JM, Thompson MW, Czegledy-Nagy E. Genetic aspects of immotile cilia syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1986;25(1):149–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    MacKay ON. Antibiotic treatment of rhinitis and sinusitis. Am J Rhinol. 1987;1:83–5.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Taccetti G, Campana S, Neri AS. Antibiotic therapy against pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. J Chemother. 2008;20(2):166–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Handelsman DJ, Conway AJ, Boylan LM. Young’s syndrome. Obstructive azoospermia and chronic sinopulmonary infections. N Engl J Med. 1984;310(1):3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schanker HM, Rajfer J, Saxon A. Recurrent respiratory disease, azoospermia, and nasal polyposis. A syndrome that mimics cystic fibrosis and immotile cilia syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 1985;145(12):2201–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Larsen K, Tos M. The estimated incidence of symptomatic nasal polyps. Acta Otolaryngol. 2002;122:179–82,6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Drake-Lee AB, Lowe D, Swanston A, Grace A. Clinical profile and recurrence of nasal polyps. J Laryngol Otol. 1984;98:783–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hulse KE, Stevens W, Tan BK, Schleimer RP. Pathogenesis of nasal polyposis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015;45:328–46.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fokkens W, Lund V, Mullol J. EP3OS 2007: European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007. A summary for otorhinolaryngologists. Rhinology. 2007;45:97–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Settipane GA, Chafee FH. Nasal polyps in asthma and rhinitis: a review of 6,037 patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1977;59:17–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Grigoreas C, Vourdas D, Petalas K. Nasal polyps in patients with rhinitis and asthma. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2002;23:169–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bonfils P, Malinvaud D. Influence of allergy in patients with nasal polyposis after endoscopic sinus surgery. Acta Otolaryngol. 2008;128:186–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sin A, Terzioglu E, Kokuludag A, Veral A, Sebik F, Karci B, Kabakci T. Allergy as an etiologic factor in nasal polyposis. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1997;7:234–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pastorello EA, Incorvaia C, Riario-Sforza GG, Codecasa L, Menghisi V, Bianchi C. Importance of allergic etiology in nasal polyposis. Allergy Proc. 1994;15:151–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kule ZA, Deveci HS, Kule M, Habesoglu TE, Somay A, Gursel AO. The correlation of clinical measures with the histopathological findings in nasal polyposis. ENT Updates. 2015;5(1):1–8.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shatkin JS, Delsupehe KG, Thisted RA, Corey JP. Mucosal allergy in the absence of systemic allergy in nasal polyposis and rhinitis: a meta-analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1994;111:553–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Han DH, Kim SW, Cho SH, Kim DY, Lee CH, Kim SS, Rhee CS. Predictors of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp. Allergy. 2009;64:118–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Samter M, Beers RF. Intolerance to aspirin. Clinical studies and consideration of its pathogenesis. Ann Intern Med. 1968;68:975–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bachert C, Patou J, Van Cauwenberge P. The role of sinus disease in asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;6:29–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Batra PS, Kern RC, Tripathi A. Outcome analysis of endoscopic sinus surgery in patients with nasal polyps and asthma. Laryngoscope. 2003;113(10):1703–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kim JE, Kountakis SE. The prevalence of Samter’s triad in patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Ear Nose Throat J. 2007;86(7):396–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Safirstein BH. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with obstruction of the upper respiratory tract. Chest. 1976;70:788–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Corey JP. Allergic fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1992;25:225–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wise SK, Ghegan MD, Gorham E. Socioeconomic factors in the diagnosis of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;138:38–42.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Manning SC, Holman M. Further evidence for allergic pathophysiology in allergic fungal sinusitis. Laryngoscope. 1998;108:1485–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erkan Esen
    • 1
  • Adin Selçuk
    • 1
  • Desiderio Passali
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OtorhinolaryngologyUniversity of Health Sciences, Kocaeli Derince Training and Research HospitalIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Medical Faculty, Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of SienaSienaItaly

Personalised recommendations