Histology and Embryology of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses

  • İsa Azgın
  • Murat Kar
  • Emmanuel P. Prokopakis


A precise comprehension of the growth and anatomical variances of the nasal septum and components of the lateral nasal wall is crucial for the best management of nasal blockage. With the understanding of the particular area and anatomical explanation for an individual’s nasal blockage, physicians can better determine the precise composition that is accountable for the blockage and hence carry out a better focused strategy to treat the condition. The stomodeum is called the rudimentary mouth which develops around the fourth week of the fetal period, in the center of the place between the first pharyngeal arches which gives rise to the facial structures. The neural crest cells of pharyngeal arches interact to form the skeleton, while the mesoderm produces the muscles of face and neck. Around the fifth week of the fetal period, the face starts to form, beginning with the nasal placodes which form the nasal pits after they evaginate. The primordial lip is formed by the frontal nasal prominences which appear over the stomodeum. The union of the mandibular prominences gives rise to the origins of the lower lip, chin, and mandible. In this chapter, the embryology and histology of the nose and paranasal sinuses will be presented.


Nose Paranasal sinus Embryology Histology Fetal period Neural crest 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • İsa Azgın
    • 1
  • Murat Kar
    • 2
  • Emmanuel P. Prokopakis
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of OtorhinolaryngologyUniversity of Health Sciences, Konya Training and Research HospitalKonyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of OtorhinolaryngologyKumluca State HospitalAntalyaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of OtorhinolaryngologyUniversity of Crete School of MedicineCreteGreece

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