Advertisement

Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Adults and Children

  • Ömer Çağatay Ertugay
  • Sema Zer Toros
  • Luo Zhang
Chapter

Abstract

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) could be briefly defined as a mucosal inflammation of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that lasts 12 weeks or longer. Rhinosinusitis is the preferred term rather than using the phrase “sinusitis” as the inflammation of paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity is almost always seen together. It is not a result of a single pathologic condition but more precisely should be seen as a combination of related disorders those have common clinical and histologic findings. Exact definition of CRS has been a controversial issue for many years. Many different classifications and management algorithms have been reported in the literature in order to standardize the whole process. CRS cannot be simplified as an untreated or persistant acute rhinosinusitis; therefore, the diagnosis should be based on objective evidence of chronic mucosal inflammation. Prevelance of CRS varies worldwide due to different diagnostic criteria of the disease. In many countries, it ranges from 7 to 27% due to subjective symptom-based diagnosis of the disease. Chronic rhinosinusitis is a clinical condition resulting from heterogenous group of disorders. In order to evaluate and manage the process, it is subclassified into three groups: (1) CRS with Nasal Polyposis, (2) CRS without Nasal Polyposis and (3) Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis. In this chapter, CRS is discussed.

Keywords

Chronic rhinosinusitis Classification Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis Chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyposis Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis 

References

  1. 1.
    Meltzer EO, Hamilos DL, Hadley JA, et al. Rhinosinusitis: establishing definitions for clinical research and patient care. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114:155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Scadding GK, Durham SR, Mirakian R, et al. BSACI guidelines for the management of rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hastan D, Fokkens WJ, Bachert C, et al. Chronic rhinosinusitis in Europe-an underestimated disease. Allergy. 2011;66:1216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bhattacharyya N. Incremental health care utilization and expenditures for chronic rhinosinusitis in the United States. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2011;120:423–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fokkens WJ, Lund WJ, Mullol J, et al. European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2012. A summary for otolaryngologists. Rhinology. 2012;50:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mladina R, Vuković K, Poje G. The Two Holes syndrome. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2009;23(6):602–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    DelGaudo JM, Wise SK, Wise JC. Association of radiological evidence of frontal sinus disease with the presence of frontal pain. Am J Rhinol. 2005;19:167.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hamilos DL. Chronic rhinosinusitis pattern of illness. Clin Allergy Immunol. 2007;20:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leo G, Piacentini E, Inconvaria C, et al. Chronic rhinosinusitis and allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2007;18:19–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bachert C, Gevaert P, Holtappels G, et al. Total and spesific IgE in nasal polyps is related to local eosinophilic inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;107:607–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rachelefsky GS, Katz RM, Siegel SC. Chronic sinus disease with associated reactive airway disease in children. Pediatrics. 1984;73:526–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ten Brinke A, Grootendorst DC, Schmidt JT, et al. Chronic sinusitis in severe asthma is related to sputum eosinophilia. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;109:621–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin DC, Chandra RK, Tan BK, et al. Association between severity of asthma and degree of chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2011;25:205–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kaufman J, Wright GW. The effect of nasal and nasopharyngeal irritation on airway resistance in man. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1969;100:626–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Griffin MP, McFadden ER Jr, Ingram RH Jr. Airway cooling in asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects during nasal and oral breathing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1982;69:354–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rolla G, Colagrande P, Scappaticci E, et al. Damage of pharyngeal mucosa and hyperresponsiveness of airway in sinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;100:52–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Freidman R, Ackerman M, Wald E, Casselbrant M, Friday G, Fireman P. Asthma and bacterial sinusitis in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1984;74:185–9.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Perez-Novo CA, Watelet CB, Claeys C, Van Cauwenberge P, Bachert C. Prostoglandin, leukotriene and lipoxin balance in chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyposis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115:1189–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ferguson BJ, Barnes L, Bernstein JM, et al. Geographic variation in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin N Am. 2000;33:441–9.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bhattacharya N, Lee KH. Chronic recurrent rhinosinusitis: disease severity and clinical characterization. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:306.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cryer J, Schipor I, Perloff JR, Palmer JN. Evidence of bacterial biofilms in human chronic sinusitis. J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2004;66:155.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ponikau JU, Sherris DA, Kern EB, et al. The diagnosis and incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999;74:877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Emanuel IA, Shah SB. Chronic rhinosinusitis: allergy and sinus computed tomography relationships. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000;123:687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jarvis D, Newson R, Lotvall J, et al. Asthma in adults and its association with chronic rhinosinusitis: the GA2LEN survey in Europe. Allergy. 2012;67:91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Carr TF, Koterba AP, Chandra R, et al. Characterization of spesific antibody deficiency in adults with medically refractory chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2011;25:241.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lohrmann C, Uhl M, Warnatz K, et al. Sinonasal computed tomography in patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2006;30:122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Malekzadeh Z, Hamburger MD, Whelan PJ, et al. Density of middle turbinate subepithelial mucous glands in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;127:190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fokkens WJ, Lund VJ, Mulloj J, et al. European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. Rhinol Suppl. 2012;23:1–298.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mafee MF, Tran BH, Chapa AR. Imaging of rhinosinusitis and its complications: plain film, CT and MRI. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2006;30:165–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maroldi R, Ravanelli M, Borghesi A, Farina D. Paranasal sinus imaging. Eur J Radiol. 2008;66:372–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nadel DM, Lanza DC, Kennedy DW. Endoscopically guided cultures in chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol. 1998;12:233–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Neher A, Fischer H, Appenroth E, et al. Tolerability of N-chlorotaurine in chronic rhinosinusitis applied via Yamik catheter. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2005;32:359–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kim ST, Choi JT, Jeon HG, et al. Comparison between polymerase chain reaction and fungal culture for the detection of fungi in patients with chronic sinusitis and normal controls. Acta Otolaryngol. 2005;125:72–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kalish L, Snidvongs K, Sivasubranamiam R, et al. Topical steroids for nasal polyps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD006549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ebbens FA, Scadding GK, Badia L, et al. Amphotericin B nasal lavages: not a solution for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol. 2006;118:1149–56.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schaper C, Noga O, Koch B, et al. Anti-inflammatory properties of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in patient with asthma and nasal polyposis. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2011;21:51–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Van der Veken P, Clement PA, Buisseret T, et al. CAT-scan study ıf the prevalence of sinus disorders and anatomical variations in 196 children. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 1989;43(1):51–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Celedon JC, Litonjua AA, Weiss ST, et al. Day care attandance in the first year of life and illnesses of the upper and lower respiaratory tract in children with a familial history of atopy. Pediatrics. 1999;104:495–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Muntz HR, Lusk RP. Bacteriology of the ethmoid bullae in children with chronic sinusitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck. 1991;117:179–81.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Elwany S, El-Dine AN, El-Medany A, et al. Relationship between bacteriology of the adenoid core and middle meatus in children with sinusitis. J Laryngol Otol. 2011;125:279–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    El-serag HB, Gilger M, Kuebeler M, et al. Extraesophageal associations of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children without neurological defects. Gastroenterology. 2001;121:1294–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bothwell MR, Parsons DC, Talbot A, et al. Outcome of reflux therapy on pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;121:255–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fokkens W, Lund W, Mullol J. European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps group: european position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007. Rhinol Suppl. 2007;20:1–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Babinski D, Trawinska-Bartnicka M. Rhinosinusitis in cystic fibrosis: not a simple story. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72:619–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Manning SC, Merkel M, Kriesel K, et al. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis. Laryngoscope. 1997;107:170–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Brietzke SE, Brigger MT. Adenoidectomy outcomes in pediatric rhinosinusitis: a meta-analysis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72:1541–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ömer Çağatay Ertugay
    • 1
  • Sema Zer Toros
    • 1
  • Luo Zhang
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OtorhinolaryngologyUniversity of Health Sciences, Haydarpaşa Numune Training and Research HospitalIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Beijing Institute of Otolaryngology and Beijing TongRen HospitalBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations