History of Rhinology

  • Cemal Cingi
  • Metin Onerci
  • Donald Leopold


Rhinology refers to the study of the nose, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx. The field today involves an understanding of basic science principles including physiology as it relates to the mucociliary blanket, molecular biology with respect to the inflammatory process, and microbiology as it concerns the ever-changing spectrum of organisms that may infect the sinus passages. Equally important are the newer surgical procedures that deal with the disease in this anatomic region. The transition from open techniques to an endoscopic approach has enabled the modern physician to access vital structures in a more anatomic and functional manner. During the second half of the nineteenth century, major progress was made in learning the anatomy and physiology of the nose and sinuses. With the beginning of the twentieth century, an outburst of technology aroused that provided notable advances in the kind and quantity of surgeries carried out. Today’s knowledge of the anatomy to a great deal goes back to the basic work of Emil Zuckerkandl of Austria who, starting from the 1870s, described in subtle studies the anatomical and developmental details of the nose and sinuses, opening an entire new era regarding the clinical and surgical approach to the area. The several years around the turn of the century stand out with research on sectional and surgical anatomy, generating the specialty of rhinology and creating today’s principles of diagnosis and therapy of disorders of the nose and sinuses. Names such as Grünwald, Onodi, Hajek, and many more are closely associated with this particular productive interval. Historical progress of rhinology is also interesting. In this chapter, history of rhinology is presented in detail.


Rhinology History Paranasal sinuses Nasopharynx Anatomy Surgery 


  1. 1.
    Frenkiel S, Wright ED. The specialty of rhinology, part 1: a historical glimpse. J Otolaryngol. 2001;30(Suppl 1):26–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Leopold D. A history of rhinology in North America. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1996;115:283–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stammberger H. History of rhinology: anatomy of the paranasal sinuses. Rhinology. 1989 Sep;27(3):197–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nogueira JF Jr, Hermann DR, Américo Rdos R, Barauna Filho IS, Stamm AE, Pignatari SS. A brief history of otorhinolaryngolgy: otology, laryngology and rhinology. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2007 Sep-Oct;73(5):693–703.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lascaratos JG, Segas JV, Trompoukis CC, Assimakopoulos DA. From the roots of rhinology: the reconstruction of nasal injuries by Hippocrates. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2003;112(2):159–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Papyros Ebers, ubersetzt von Dr. Med. H. Joachim, Berlin, 1890.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wright J. A history of laryngology and rhinology. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger; 1914.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stevenson RS. Guthrie D. a history of Oto-laryngology. Edinburgh: Livingstone; 1949.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Voltolini FER. Die Krankheiten der Nase. Breslau, 1888.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hippocrates. Works translated and edited by Jones WHS and Withington ET. London: Loeb Classical Library, 1923.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Celcus OC. De medicina. Spencer WG, trans. London: Loeb classical library, 1935–38.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Galen C. Works translated and edited by Brock AJ. London: Loeb classical Library, 1916.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Feldmann H. The maxillary sinus and its illness in the history of rhinology. Images from the history of otorhinolaryngology, highlighted by instruments from the collection of the German medical history Museum in Ingolstadt. Laryngorhinootologie. 1998;77(10):587–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vesalius A. De humani corparis fabrica. Venice, 1543.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fallopius G. Observationes anatomicae. Venice 1561.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Forestus P. Observationum et curationum medicinalium libri. Ludg. Batar, 1591.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Willis T. De cerebri anatome, London, 1664.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schneider CV. Liber primus de catarrhis. Wittenberg, 1660.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tange RA. Some historical aspects of the surgical treatment of the infected maxillary sinus. Rhinology. 1991;29(2):155–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Türkiye'nin İlk Rinoloji Kitabı (Turkey's First Book of Rhinology). Rinoturk-Tanyeri. Turkish Rinologic Society. Accessed 20 Aug 2015.
  21. 21.
    Lasmar A, Seligman J. História (e histórias) da Otologia no Brasil. Revinter; 2004.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kaluskar SK. Evolution of rhinology. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;104(60):101–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Weir N. History of medicine: otorhinolaryngology. Postgrad Med J. 2000;76:65–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Deschamps JFL. Dissertation sur les maladies des fosses nasales. Paris, 1804.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Langenbeck. Handbuch der Anatomie, Gottingen, 1843.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Freer O. The correction of deflections of the nasal septum with a minimum of traumatism. JAMA. 1902;38:636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Killian G. Die submucose Fensterresektion der Nasenscheidewand. Arch Larang Rhinol (Berl). 1904;16:362.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Highmore N. Corporis humani disquisitio anatomica. The Hague, 1651.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Caldwell GW. N Y Med J. 1893;18:527.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Luc H. Arch internat De laryng. 1897;6:216.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lynch RC. South Med J. 1924;17:289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Howarth W. J Laryngol Otol. 1921;36:417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Watson D. Septoplasty. In: Meyers AD (Ed.). Medscape. Accessed 20 Aug 2015.
  34. 34.
    Goldwyn RM. Is there plastic surgery in the Edwin smith papyrus? Plast Reconstr Surg. 1982;70(2):263–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lund V. The evolution of surgery on the maxillary sinus for chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope. 2002;112(3):415–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita (English translation by K.L. Bhishagratna). 1998. Calcutta, India: Kaviraj Kunjalal Publishing; 1907–17.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dieffenbach JF. Die operative Chirurgie. Liepzig, Germany: F.a. Brockhaus; 1845.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Roe JO. The deformity termed “pug-nose” and its correction, by a simple operation, vol. 31. New York: The Medical Record; 1887. p. 621.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Weir RF. On restoring sunken noses without scarring the face. New York: The Medical Record; 1892.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vartanian AJ. Basic closed rhinoplasty. In: Granick MS (ed) Medscape. Accessed 20 Aug 2015.
  41. 41.
    Arneja JS. Basic open rhinoplasty. In: Granick MS (ed) Medscape. Accessed 20 Aug 2015.
  42. 42.
    Rethi A. Operation to shorten an excessively long nose. Rev Chir Plast. 1934;2:85.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Goodman WS, Charles DA. Technique of external rhinoplasty. J Otolaryngol. 1978;7(1):13–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Anderson JR, Johnson CM Jr, Adamson P. Open rhinoplasty: an assessment. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1982;90(2):272–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gunter JP. The merits of the open approach in rhinoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;99(3):863–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Aiach G. Atlas of rhinoplasty: open and Endonasal approaches, second edition. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115(6):1778–9.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sheen JH. Closed versus open rhinoplasty--and the debate goes on. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;99(3):859–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    DeFatta RJ, Ducic Y, Adelson RT, Sabatini PR. Comparison of closed reduction alone versus primary open repair of acute nasoseptal fractures. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;37(4):502–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Anderson JR. The future of open rhinoplasty. Facial Plast Surg. 1988;5(2):189–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Welch KC. CSF Rhinorrhea. In: Meyers AD (Ed.). Medscape. Accessed 20 Aug 2015.
  51. 51.
    Proetz AW. The displacement method of sinus diagnosis and treatment. St. Louis: Annals; 1931.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    van Alyea OE. Nasal sinuses. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 1951.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    History of antibiotics. Accessed 7 Apr 2016.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cemal Cingi
    • 1
  • Metin Onerci
    • 2
  • Donald Leopold
    • 3
  1. 1.Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Medical FacultyDepartment of OtorhinolaryngologyEskisehirTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical FacultyHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Department of SurgeryUniversity of Vermont Medical CenterBurlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations