Imaging of Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Tumors



Tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are uncommon neoplasms; however, radiological recognition of tumors is important due to frequent imaging of the paranasal sinuses. The nasal cavity is composed of widely diverse tissue types; therefore, it gives rise to a large histological variety of neoplasms. The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses comprises malignant and benign epithelial tumors, soft tissue tumors, tumors of bone and cartilage, hematolymphoid tumors, neuroectodermal tumors, germ cell tumors, and secondary tumors. Primary malignant tumors of the sinonasal cavities are most commonly of epithelial origin and approximately 80% of malignant tumors of the sinonasal cavity are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Although SCC of the nasal cavity can present at an early stage, those of the paranasal sinuses are often asymptomatic initially and are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Tumor involvement of the orbit, anterior skull base, pterygopalatine fossa, and/or masticator space is common at presentation. However, some benign tumors may also demonstrate aggressive growth into adjacent structures and appear similar to malignancies. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and characterization of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus neoplasms. Although imaging appearances of these tumors are usually not specific and most of the time histological assessment is required for definitive diagnosis, certain tumors have characteristic features that are useful for radiological evaluation. Improvements in imaging technology, especially the introduction of multislice computed tomography (CT) and the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods have led to better delineation and characterization of tumors. In this chapter, imaging of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumors is presented.


Imaging Nasal cavity Paranasal sinus Tumor Malignant Benign Multislice computed tomography Magnetic resonance imaging 


  1. 1.
    Som PM, Brandwein-Gensler MS, Kassel EE, et al. Tumors and tumor-like conditions of the sinonasal cavities. In: Som PM, Curtin HD, editors. Head and neck imaging. 5th ed. St Louis: Elsevier; 2011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barnes L, Tse LLY, Hunt JL, et al. Tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. In: Barnes L, Eveson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D, editors. Pathology and genetics of head and neck tumours. Lyon: IARC Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Som PM, Shapiro MD, Biller HF, et al. Sinonasal tumors and inflammatory tissues: differentiation with MR imaging. Radiology. 1988;167:803–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Som PM, Dillon WP, Sze G, et al. Benign and malignant sinonasal lesions with intracranial extension: differentiation with MR imaging. Radiology. 1989;172:763–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Loevner LA, Sonners AI. Imaging of neoplasms of the paranasal sinuses. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2004;14:625–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haerle SK, Gullane PJ, Witterick IJ, et al. Sinonasal carcinomas: epidemiology, pathology, and management. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2013;24:39–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Razek AA, Sieza S, Maha B. Assessment of nasal and paranasal sinus masses by diffusion-weighted MR imaging. J Neuroradiol. 2009;36:206–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ling FT, Kountakis SE. Advances in imaging of the paranasal sinuses. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2006;6:502–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Walden MJ, Zinreich SJ, Aygun N. Radiology of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. In: Flint P, Haughey B, Lund V, Niparko J, Robbins K, Thomas JR, Lesperance M, editors. Cummings otolaryngology: head & neck surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby; 2015.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Phillips CD, Futterer SF, Lipper MH, et al. Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: CT and MR imaging of an uncommon neoplasm of the nasal cavity. Radiology. 1997;202:477–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lund VJ, Lloyd GA. Radiological changes associated with inverted papilloma of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Br J Radiol. 1984;57:455–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Suarez C, Llorente JL, Fernandez De Leon R, et al. Prognostic factors in sinonasal tumors involving the anterior skull base. Head Neck. 2004;26:136–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Van Tuyl R, Gussack GS. Prognostic factors in craniofacial surgery. Laryngoscope. 1991;101:240–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Branstetter BF 4th, Weissman JL. Role of MR and CT in the paranasal sinuses. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2005;38:1279–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Eisen MD, Yousem DM, Loevner LA, et al. Preoperative imaging to predict orbital invasion by tumor. Head Neck. 2000;22:456–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eisen MD, Yousem DM, Montone KT, et al. Use of preoperative MR to predict dural, perineural, and venous sinus invasion of skull base tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1996;17:1937–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chong VF, Fan YF. Skull base erosion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: detection by CT and MRI. Clin Radiol. 1996;51:625–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Badger D, Aygun N. Imaging of perineural spread in head and neck cancer. Radiol Clin North Am. 2017;55:139–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maroldi R, Farina D, Borghesi A, et al. Perineural tumor spread. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2008;18:413–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Curtin HD. Detection of perineural spread: fat suppression versus no fat suppression. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25:1–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang J, Takashima S, Takayama F, et al. Head and neck lesions: characterization with diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR imaging. Radiology. 2001;220:621–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen X, Xian J, Wang X, et al. Role of periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction diffusion-weighted imaging in correcting distortion and evaluating head and neck masses using 3 T MRI. Clin Radiol. 2014;69:403–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Semiz Oysu A, Ayanoglu E, Kodalli N, et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the differentiation of posttreatment fibrosis from recurrent carcinoma of the head and neck. Clin Imaging. 2005;29:307–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Furukawa M, Parvathaneni U, Maravilla K, et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion imaging of head and neck tumors at 3 Tesla. Head Neck. 2013;35:923–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gaddikeri S, Gaddikeri RS, Tailor T, et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in head and neck cancer: techniques and clinical applications. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2016;37:588–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang X, Zhang Z, Chen X, et al. Value of magnetic resonance imaging including dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in differentiation between inverted papilloma and malignant tumors in the nasal cavity. Chin Med J (Engl). 2014;127:1696–701.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chawla S, Kim S, Dougherty L, et al. Pretreatment diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for prediction of local treatment response in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;200:35–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bernstein JM, Homer JJ, West CM. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers in head and neck cancer: potential to guide treatment? A systematic review. Oral Oncol. 2014;50:963–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang X, Song L, Chong V, et al. Multiparametric MRI findings of sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma in adults with comparison to carcinoma. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017;45:998–1004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang XY, Yan F, Hao H, et al. Improved performance in differentiating benign from malignant sinonasal tumors using diffusion-weighted combined with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Chin Med J (Engl). 2015;128:586–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Agrawal S, Awasthi R, Singh A, et al. An exploratory study into the role of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI metrics as predictors of response in head and neck cancers. Clin Radiol. 2012;67:1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kim S, Loevner LA, Quon H, et al. Prediction of response to chemoradiation therapy in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:262–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Greven KM, Williams DW 3rd, Keyes JW Jr, et al. Positron emission tomography of patients with head and neck carcinoma before and after high dose irradiation. Cancer. 1994;74:1355–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Paes FM, Singer AD, Checkver AN, et al. Perineural spread in head and neck malignancies: clinical significance and evaluation with 18F-FDG PET/CT. Radiographics. 2013;33:1717–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Varoquaux A, Rager O, Dulguerov P, et al. Diffusion-weighted and PET/MR imaging after radiation therapy for malignant head and neck tumors. Radiographics. 2015;35:1502–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Edge SB, Compton CC. The American Joint Committee on Cancer: the 7th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual and the future of TNM. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:1471–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mortuaire G, Camous D, Vandenhende-Szymanski C, et al. Local extension staging of sinonasal tumours: retrospective comparison between CT/MRI assessment and pathological findings. Clin Otolaryngol. 2017;42(5):988–93. Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zweig JL, Carrau RL, Celin SE, et al. Endoscopic repair of acquired encephaloceles, meningoceles, and meningo-encephaloceles: predictors of success. Skull Base. 2002;12:133–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Adin ME, Blitz AM, Aygün N. Imaging of the skull base. In: Boahene K, Quiñones-Hinojosa A, editors. Minimal access skull base surgery: open and endoscopic assisted approaches. New Delhi: JP Medical Ltd; 2016.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lin BM, Aygun N, Agrawal Y. Imaging case of the month: cystic lesions of the petrous apex: identification based on magnetic resonance imaging characteristics. Otol Neurotol. 2012;33:75–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Moulin G, Chagnaud C, Gras R, et al. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: comparison of blood loss during removal in embolized group versus nonembolized group. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 1995;18:158–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lazzaro MA, Badruddin A, Zaidat OO, et al. Endovascular embolization of head and neck tumors. Front Neurol. 2011;2:64.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Elhammady MS, Peterson EC, Johnson JN, et al. Preoperative onyx embolization of vascular head and neck tumors by direct puncture. World Neurosurg. 2012;77:725–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Offiah C, Hall E. Post-treatment imaging appearances in head and neck cancer patients. Clin Radiol. 2011;66:13–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lell M, Baum U, Greess H, et al. Head and neck tumors: imaging recurrent tumor and post-therapeutic changes with CT and MRI. Eur J Radiol. 2000;33:239–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hermans R. Posttreatment imaging in head and neck cancer. Eur J Radiol. 2008;66:501–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gong QY, Zheng GL, Zhu HY. MRI differentiation of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma from postradiation fibrosis. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 1991;15:423–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chong VF. Post treatment imaging in head and neck tumours. Cancer Imaging. 2005;5:8–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mukherji SK, Wolf GT. Evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma after treatment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:1743–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cheung PK, Chin RY, Eslick GD. Detecting residual/recurrent head neck squamous cell carcinomas using PET or PET/CT: systematic review and meta-analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;154:421–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lapela M, Grénman R, Kurki T, et al. Head and neck cancer: detection of recurrence with PET and 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Radiology. 1995;197:205–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Choi SH, Lee JH, Choi YJ, et al. Detection of local tumor recurrence after definitive treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: histogram analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted perfusion MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017;208:42–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Razek AA, Megahed AS, Denewer A, et al. Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in differentiation between the viable and necrotic parts of head and neck tumors. Acta Radiol. 2008;49:364–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dammann F, Pereira P, Laniado M, et al. Inverted papilloma of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses: using CT for primary diagnosis and follow-up. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999;172:543–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Momose KJ, Weber AL, Goodman M, et al. Radiological aspects of inverted papilloma. Radiology. 1980;134:73–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Eggesbø HB. Imaging of sinonasal tumours. Cancer Imaging. 2012;12:136–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lee DK, Chung SK, Dhong HJ, et al. Focal hyperostosis on CT of sinonasal inverted papilloma as a predictor of tumor origin. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007;28:618–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ojiri H, Ujita M, Tada S, et al. Potentially distinctive features of sinonasal inverted papilloma on MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000;175:465–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Maroldi R, Farina D, Palvarini L, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of inverted papilloma: differential diagnosis with malignant sinonasal tumors. Am J Rhinol. 2004;18:305–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Oztürk E, Sağlam O, Sönmez G, et al. CT and MRI of an unusual intranasal mass: pleomorphic adenoma. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2008;14:186–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fushiki H, Morijiri M, Maruyama M, et al. MRI of intranasal pleomorphic adenoma. Acta Otolaryngol. 2006;126:889–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Motoori K, Takano H, Nakano K, et al. Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum: MR features. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000;21:1948–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kim YS, Kim HJ, Kim CH, et al. CT and MR imaging findings of sinonasal schwannoma: a review of 12 cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34:628–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dublin AB, Dedo HH, Bridger WH. Intranasal schwannoma: magnetic resonance and computed tomography appearance. Am J Otolaryngol. 1995;16:251–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Yu E, Mikulis D, Nag S. CT and MR imaging findings in sinonasal schwannoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:929–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hillstrom RP, Zarbo RJ, Jacobs JR. Nerve sheath tumors of the paranasal sinuses: electron microscopy and histopathologic diagnosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1990;102:257–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Annino DJ Jr, Domanowski GF, Vaughan CW. A rare cause of nasal obstruction: a solitary neurofibroma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;104:484–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Moreno PM, Meseguer DH. Solitary neurofibroma of the inferior nasal turbinate. Auris Nasus Larynx. 1998;25:329–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hellquist HB, Lundgren J. Neurogenic sarcoma of the sinonasal tract. J Laryngol Otol. 1991;105:186–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kim JH, Park SW, Kim SC, et al. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of nasal cavity hemangiomas according to histological type. Korean J Radiol. 2015;16:566–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Yang BT, Li SP, Wang YZ, et al. Routine and dynamic MR imaging study of lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal cavity with comparison to inverting papilloma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34:2202–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Dillon WP, Som PM, Rosenau W. Hemangioma of the nasal vault: MR and CT features. Radiology. 1991;180:761–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kim HJ, Kim JH, Kim JH, et al. Bone erosion caused by sinonasal cavernous hemangioma: CT findings in two patients. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1995;16:1176–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Witt TR, Shah JP, Sternberg SS. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. A 30 year clinical review. Am J Surg. 1983;146:521–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Salimov A, Ozer S. A rare location of angiofibroma in the inferior turbinate in young woman. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2015;19:187–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lloyd G, Howard D, Lund VJ, et al. Imaging for juvenile angiofibroma. J Laryngol Otol. 2000;114:727–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Schick B, Kahle G. Radiological findings in angiofibroma. Acta Radiol. 2000;41:585–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Raghavan P, Phillips CD. Magnetic resonance imaging of sinonasal malignancies. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2007;18:259–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kondo M, Horiuchi M, Shiga H, et al. Computed tomography of malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Cancer. 1982;50:226–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Som PM, Silvers AR, Catalano PJ, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the facial bones, skull base, and calvaria: CT and MR manifestations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1997;18:173–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gomaa MA, Hammad MS, Abdelmoghny A, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography and different imaging modalities in evaluation of sinonasal neoplasms diagnosed by histopathology. Clin Med Insights Ear Nose Throat. 2013;6:9–15.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Klintenberg C, Olofsson J, Hellquist H, et al. Adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid sinuses. A review of 28 cases with special reference to wood dust exposure. Cancer. 1984;54:482–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sigal R, Monnet O, de Baere T, et al. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck: evaluation with MR imaging and clinical-pathologic correlation in 27 patients. Radiology. 1992;184:95–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Frierson HF Jr, Mills SE, Fechner RE, et al. Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. An aggressive neoplasm derived from Schneiderian epithelium and distinct from olfactory neuroblastoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 1986;10:771–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Zhu Q, Zhu W, Wu J, et al. The CT and MRI observations of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in paranasal sinuses. World J Surg Oncol. 2015;13:54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ooi GC, Chim CS, Liang R, et al. Nasal T-cell/natural killer cell lymphoma: CT and MR imaging features of a new clinicopathologic entity. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000;174:1141–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Shohat I, Berkowicz M, Dori S, et al. Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the sinonasal tract. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;97:328–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ou CH, Chen CC, Ling JC, et al. Nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. J Chin Med Assoc. 2007;70:207–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    King AD, Lei KI, Ahuja AT, et al. MR imaging of nasal T-cell/natural killer cell lymphoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000;174:209–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Maeda M, Kato H, Sakuma H, et al. Usefulness of the apparent diffusion coefficient in line scan diffusion-weighted imaging for distinguishing between squamous cell carcinomas and malignant lymphomas of the head and neck. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26:1186–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kondo M, Hashimoto S, Inuyama Y, et al. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the sinonasal cavities: CT evaluation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1986;10:841–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ching AS, Khoo JB, Chong V. CT and MR imaging of solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasal tract. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002;23:1632–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Matsumura S, Kishino M, Ishida T, et al. Radiographic findings for solitary plasmacytoma of the bone in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus: a case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000;89:651–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Regenbogen VS, Zinreich SJ, Kim KS, et al. Hyperostotic esthesioneuroblastoma: CT and MR findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1988;12:52–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Woodhead P, Lloyd GA. Olfactory neuroblastoma: imaging by magnetic resonance, CT and conventional techniques. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 1988;13:387–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Derdeyn CP, Moran CJ, Wippold FJ 2nd, et al. MRI of esthesioneuroblastoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1994;18:16–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Som PM, Lidov M, Brandwein M, et al. Sinonasal esthesioneuroblastoma with intracranial extension: marginal tumor cysts as a diagnostic MR finding. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1994;15:1259–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lund VJ. Malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Ear Nose Throat J. 1993;72:285–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Yousem DM, Li C, Montone KT, et al. Primary malignant melanoma of the sinonasal cavity: MR imaging evaluation. Radiographics. 1996;16:1101–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kim SS, Han MH, Kim JE, et al. Malignant melanoma of the sinonasal cavity: explanation of magnetic resonance signal intensities with histopathologic characteristics. Am J Otolaryngol. 2000;21:366–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Palacios E, Restrepo S, Mastrogiovanni L, et al. Sinonasal hemangiopericytomas: clinicopathologic and imaging findings. Ear Nose Throat J. 2005;84:99–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ferrari A, Dileo P, Casanova M, et al. Rhabdomyosarcoma in adults. A retrospective analysis of 171 patients treated at a single institution. Cancer. 2003;98:571–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lee JH, Lee MS, Lee BH, et al. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck in adults: MR and CT findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1996;17:1923–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Som PM, Norton KI, Shugar JM, et al. Metastatic hypernephroma to the head and neck. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1987;8:1103–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Azarpira N, Ashraf MJ, Khademi B, et al. Distant metastases to nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses case series. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;63:349–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Akdemir F, Aldemir M, Çakar H, et al. Metastasis of prostate adenocarcinoma to the frontal and ethmoid sinus. Turk J Urol. 2016;42:299–302.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Renner GJ, Davis WE, Templer JW. Metastasis of thyroid carcinoma to the paranasal sinuses. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1984;92:233–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Alawi F. Benign fibro-osseous diseases of the maxillofacial bones. A review and differential diagnosis. Am J Clin Pathol. 2002;118(Suppl):S50–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Eller R, Sillers M. Common fibro-osseous lesions of the paranasal sinuses. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2006;39:585–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    McCollister KB, Hopper BD, Michel MA. Sinonasal neoplasms: update on classification, imaging features, and management. Appl Radiol. 2015;44:7–15.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Chen CY, Ying SH, Yao MS, et al. Sphenoid sinus osteoma at the sella turcica associated with empty sella: CT and MR imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008;29:550–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Wenig BM, Mafee MF, Ghosh L. Fibro-osseous, osseous, and cartilaginous lesions of the orbit and paraorbital region. Correlative clinicopathologic and radiographic features, including the diagnostic role of CT and MR imaging. Radiol Clin North Am. 1998;36:1241–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Maroldi R, Ravanelli M, Borghesi A, et al. Paranasal sinus imaging. Eur J Radiol. 2008;66:372–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Chong VF, Khoo JB, Fan YF. Fibrous dysplasia involving the base of the skull. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;178:717–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Som PM, Lidov M. The benign fibroosseous lesion: its association with paranasal sinus mucoceles and its MR appearance. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1992;16:871–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Patanakar T, Armao D, Mukherji SK. Nasal chondroma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000;174:1166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Butugan O, Sanchez TG, Balbani AP, et al. Nasal chondroma: a case report and review of the literature. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 1997;118:199–201.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Fu YS, Perzin KH. Non-epithelial tumors of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx. A clinicopathologic study. II. Osseous and fibro-osseous lesions, including osteoma, fibrous dysplasia, ossifying fibroma, osteoblastoma, giant cell tumor, and osteosarcoma. Cancer. 1974;33:1289–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lee YY, Van Tassel P, Nauert C, et al. Craniofacial osteosarcomas: plain film, CT, and MR findings in 46 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988;150:1397–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Koeller KK. Radiologic features of sinonasal tumors. Head Neck Pathol. 2016;10:1–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Momeni AK, Roberts CC, Chew FS. Imaging of chronic and exotic sinonasal disease: review. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189(6 Suppl):S35–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Health Sciences, Ümraniye Training and Research HospitalIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Division of Neuroradiology, Russel H. Morgan Department of RadiologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations