Advertisement

Conclusion

  • Helen Hanna
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Global Citizenship Education and Democracy book series (GCED)

Abstract

This chapter brings together the threads of arguments within the book. It summarises the findings from Chapters  4 to  6: on representing the minority and curriculum in citizenship education; on dealing with difference and pedagogy in citizenship education; and on aims in terms of preparing young people for life in a divided society. It also highlights the opportunities and challenges offered by international human rights law, particularly the challenge of interpreting the law, given the variety of identities that are vying for recognition in conflict-affected jurisdictions. It therefore proposes that an approach is taken whereby everyone who is involved in interpreting education rights obligations be considered as an ‘interpretative community’. It closes by highlighting the implications of the findings in terms of how we view international education rights frameworks and the continued challenge of delivering an appropriate citizenship education in the divided societies of Northern Ireland and Israel.

Keywords

Citizenship Citizenship education Rights Interpretative variety 

References

Literature

  1. Al-Haj, M. (2002). Multiculturalism in Deeply Divided Societies: The Israeli Case. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26(2), 169–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amrein, A. L., & Berliner, D. C. (2002). High-Stakes Testing and Student Learning. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10, 18ff.Google Scholar
  3. Apple, M. W. (1993). The Politics of Official Knowledge: Does a National Curriculum Make Sense? Discourse, 14(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
  4. Arlow, M. (2002). The Challenges of Social Inclusion in Northern Ireland: Citizenship and Life Skills. In S. Tawil (Ed.), Curriculum Change and Social Inclusion: Perspectives from the Baltic and Scandinavian Countries (Final Report of the Regional Seminar Held in Vilnius, Lithuania, 5–8 December 2001). Geneva: UNESCO International Bureau of Education.Google Scholar
  5. Ball, S. (1994). Education Reform: A Critical and Post-structural Approach. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Banks, J. A. (2004). Introduction: Democratic Citizenship Education in Multicultural Societies. In J. A. Banks (Ed.), Diversity and Citizenship Education: Global Perspectives. Indianapolis: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  7. Bar-Tal, D., & Rosen, Y. (2009). Peace Education in Societies Involved in Intractable Conflicts: Direct and Indirect Models. Review of Educational Research, 79(2), 557–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bekerman, Z., Zembylas, M., & McGlynn, C. (2009). Working Toward the De-essentialization of Identity Categories in Conflict and Postconflict Societies: Israel, Cyprus, and Northern Ireland. Comparative Education Review, 53(2), 213–234.Google Scholar
  9. Bush, K. D., & Saltarelli, D. (2000). The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Insight.Google Scholar
  10. Donnelly, C. (2004). What Price Harmony? Teachers’ Methods of Delivering an Ethos of Tolerance and Respect for Diversity in an Integrated School in Northern Ireland. Educational Research, 46(1), 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Donnelly, C., & Hughes, J. (2006). Contact, Culture and Context: Evidence from Mixed Faith Schools in Northern Ireland and Israel. Comparative Education, 42(4), 493–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dunn, S., & Nolan-Haley, J. (1998). Conflict in Northern Ireland After the Good Friday Agreement. Fordham International Law Journal, 22, 1372–1388.Google Scholar
  13. Feghali, E. (1997). Arab Cultural Communication Patterns. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 21(3), 345–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fish, S. (1980). Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communitites. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Graham-Brown, S. (1994). The Role of the Curriculum. In Minority Rights Group (Ed.), Education Rights and Minorities. London: Minority Rights Group International.Google Scholar
  16. Hess, D. E. (2004). Controversies About Controversial Issues in Democratic Education. Political Science and Politics, 37(2), 257–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holt, J. (1969). The Underachieving School. London: Pitman.Google Scholar
  18. Johnstone, I. (1990). Treaty Interpretation: The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Michigan Journal of International Law, 12, 371–419.Google Scholar
  19. Katriel, T. (1986). Talking Straight: Dugri Speech in Israeli Sabra Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Kerr, D. (1999). Citizenship Education in the Curriculum: An International Review. School Field, 10(3/4), 5–32.Google Scholar
  21. Kilkelly, U., Kilpatrick, R., Lundy, L., Moore, L., Scraton, P., Davey, C., et al. (2004). Children’s Rights in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Northern Ireland Commissioner for Children and Young People.Google Scholar
  22. Marker, G., & Mehlinger, H. (1992). Social Studies. In P. W. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Curriculum. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  23. McCowan, T. (2008). Curricular Transposition in Citizenship Education. Theory and Research in Education, 6(2), 153–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McCully, A. (2006). Practitioner Perceptions of Their Role in Facilitating the Handling of Controversial Issues in Contested Societies: A Northern Irish Experience. Educational Review, 58(1), 51–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McEvoy, L. (2007). Beneath the Rhetoric: Policy Approximation and Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 2(2), 135–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nieto, S. (1994, Spring). Moving Beyond Tolerance in Multicultural Education. Multicultural Education, 1(4), 1–8.Google Scholar
  27. Osler, A., & Starkey, H. (2003). Learning for Cosmopolitan Citizenship: Theoretical Debates and Young People’s Experiences. Educational Review, 55(3), 243–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Prout, A., & James, A. (1997). A New Paradigm for the Sociology of Childhood? Provenance, Promise and Problems. In A. James & J. Prout (Eds.), Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  29. Skinner, E. A., Kindermann, T. A., & Furrer, C. J. (2009). A Motivational Perspective on Engagement and Disaffection Conceptualization and Assessment of Children’s Behavioral and Emotional Participation in Academic Activities in the Classroom. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69(3), 493–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Smith, N., Lister, R., Middleton, S., & Cox, L. (2005). Young People as Real Citizens: Towards an Inclusionary Understanding of Citizenship. Journal of Youth Studies, 8(4), 425–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smooha, S. (2004). Index of Arab–Jewish Relations in Israel. Haifa: Jewish-Arab Center, Citizens Accord Forum between Jews and Arabs in Israel, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.Google Scholar
  32. Stradling, B. (1985). Controversial Issues in the Curriculum. Bulletin of Environmental Education, 170, 9–13.Google Scholar
  33. Ten Dam, G., & Volman, M. (2004). Critical Thinking as a Citizenship Competence: Teaching Strategies. Learning and Instruction, 14(4), 359–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tobin, J. (2010). Seeking to Persuade: A Constructive Approach to Human Rights Treaty Interpretation. Harvard Human Rights Journal, 23, 1–50.Google Scholar
  35. Wilson, D. (2005). Education Rights. In M. Salomon (Ed.), Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Guide for Minorities and Indigenous Peoples. London: Minority Rights Group.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen Hanna
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of International and Comparative EducationEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations