Advertisement

Application of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts in Wine Production

  • Santiago BenitoEmail author
  • Javier Ruiz
  • Ignacio Belda
  • Florian Kiene
  • Beata Beisert
  • Eva Navascués
  • Domingo Marquina
  • Fernando Calderón
  • Antonio Santos
  • Doris Rauhut
Chapter

Abstract

In the past, Saccharomyces spp. yeasts were almost the only option for use in modern winemaking due to their unparalleled ability to metabolize all grape juice sugar into ethanol. For that reason, until some years ago, all commercial dry yeasts were Saccharomyces spp. For several years, non-Saccharomyces were forgotten at industrial level, and even some of them were considered as spoilage microorganisms. Non-Saccharomyces only played a significant role in limited productions that perform spontaneous fermentations following organic polities. However, during the last decade, several researchers have proved numerous non-Saccharomyces to be able to improve wine quality and to solve some modern enology challenges. Some of the factors that can improve are acidity, aromatic complexity, glycerol content, ethanol reduction, mannoproteins, anthocyanins, and polysaccharide concentrations. They can also decrease the concentrations of unwanted compounds that affect food safety, such as ochratoxin A, ethyl carbamate, and biogenic amines. Due to all those scientific advances, the main manufacturers have just started to commercialize dry non-Saccharomyces such as Torulaspora delbrueckii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Lachancea thermotolerans, and Pichia kluyveri. Other non-Saccharomyces species with special enology abilities such as Candida zemplinina, Kloeckera apiculata, Hanseniaspora vineae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, C. stellata, Kazachstania aerobia, or Schizosaccharomyces japonicus could follow a similar progress. The aim of the chapter is to show which are the main abilities and advantages of these non-Saccharomyces in modern winemaking.

Keywords

Non-Saccharomyces Winemaking Torulaspora delbrueckii Schizosaccharomyces pombe Schizosaccharomyces japonicus Metschnikowia pulcherrima Lachancea thermotolerans Pichia kluyveri Pichia guilliermondii Hanseniaspora spp. 

References

  1. Anfang N, Brajkovich M, Goddard MR (2009) Co-fermentation with Pichia kluyveri increases varietal thiol concentrations in Sauvignon Blanc. Aust J Grape Wine Res 15:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azzolini M, Tosi E, Lorenzini M, Finato F, Zapparoli G (2015) Contribution to thearoma of white wines by controlled Torulaspora delbrueckii cultures in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 31:277–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balikci EK, Tanguler H, Jolly NP, Erten H (2016) Influence of Lachancea thermotolerans on cv. Emir wine fermentation. Yeast 33:313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bañuelos MA, Loira I, Escott C, Del Fresno JM, Morata A, Sanz PD, Otero L, JA S–L (2016) Grape processing by high hydrostatic pressure: effect on use of non–Saccharomyces in must fermentation. Food Bioprocess Technol 9:1769–1778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbosa C, Mendes-Faia A, Lage P, Mira NP, Mendes-Ferreira A (2015) Genomic expression program of Saccharomyces cerevisiae along a mixed-culture wine fermentation with Hanseniaspora guillermondii. Microb Cell Factories 14:124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belda I, Navascués E, Marquina D, Santos A, Calderon F, Benito S (2015) Dynamic analysis of physiological properties of Torulaspora delbrueckii in wine fermentations and its incidence on wine quality. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99:1911–1922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belda I, Ruiz J, Alastruey-Izquierdo A, Navascués E, Marquina D, Santos A (2016) Unraveling the enzymatic basis of wine “flavorome”: a phylo-functional study of wine related yeast species. Front Microbiol 7:12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belda I, Ruiz J, Beisert B, Navascués E, Marquina D, Calderón F, Rauhut D, Benito S, Santos A (2017) Influence of Torulaspora delbrueckii in varietal thiol (3–SH and 4–MSP) release in wine sequential fermentations. Int J Food Microbiol 257:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bely M, Stoeckle P, Masneuf–Pomarède I, Dubourdieu D (2008) Impact of mixed Torulaspora delbrueckii–Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture on high–sugar fermentation. Int J Food Microbiol 122:312–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benito S (2018a) The impact of Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast in winemaking. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102:3081–3094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benito S (2018b) The impacts of Lachancea thermotolerans yeast strains on winemaking. App Microbiol and Biotechnol 6:1–6Google Scholar
  12. Benito S (2019) The impacts of Schizosaccharomyces on winemaking. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 103(11):4291–4312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benito S, Palomero F, Morata A, Calderón F, Suárez-Lepe JA (2012) New applications for Schizosaccharomyces pombe in the alcoholic fermentation of red wines. Int J Food Sci Technol 47(10):2101–2108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benito S, Palomero F, Calderón F, Palmero D, JA S–L (2014) Schizosaccharomyces. In: Batt CA, Tortorelo ML (eds) Encyclopedia of food microbiology, 2nd edn. V3. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 365–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Benito Á, Calderón F, Palomero F, Benito S (2015a) Combine use of selected Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Lachancea thermotolerans yeast strains as an alternative to the traditional malolactic fermentation in red wine production. Molecules 20:9510–9523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Benito S, Hofmann T, Laier M, Lochbühler B, Schüttler A, Ebert K, Fritsch S, Röcker J, Rauhut D (2015b) Effect on quality and composition of Riesling wines fermented by sequential inoculation with non–Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eur Food Res Technol 241:707–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benito Á, Calderón F, Benito S (2016) Combined use of S. pombe and L. thermotolerans in winemaking. Beneficial effects determined through the study of wines’ analytical characteristics. Molecules 21(12):1744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Benito A, Calderon F, Benito S (2017) The combined use of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Lachancea thermotolerans–effect on the anthocyanin wine composition. Molecules 22:739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Benito Á, Calderón F, Benito S (2018) Schizosaccharomyces pombe isolation protocol. In: Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Springer, New York, NY, pp 227–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Benito Á, Calderón F, Benito S (2019) Mixed alcoholic fermentation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Lachancea thermotolerans and its influence on mannose–containing polysaccharides wine composition. AMB Express 9:17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen K, Escott C, Loira I, del Fresno JM, Morata A, Tesfaye W, Calderon F, JA S–L, Han S, Benito S (2018) Use of non–Saccharomyces yeasts and oenological tannin in red winemaking: influence on colour, aroma and sensorial properties of young wines. Food Microbiol 69:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ciani M, Maccarelli F (1998) Oenological properties of non-Saccharomyces yeasts associated with wine-making. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 14:199–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ciani M, Beco L, Comitini F (2006) Fermentation behaviour and metabolic interactions of multistarter wine yeast fermentations. Int J Food Microbiol 108:239–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ciani M, Morales P, Comitini F, Tronchoni J, Canonico L, Curiel JA, Oro L, Rodrigues AJ, Gonzalez R (2016) Non–conventional yeast species for lowering ethanol content of wines. Front Microbiol 7:642PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Comitini F, Gobbi M, Domizio P, Romani C, Lencioni L, Mannazzu I, Ciani M (2011) Selected non–Saccharomyces wine yeasts in controlled multistarter fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Food Microbiol 28:873–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Comitini F, Capece A, Ciani M, Romano P (2017) New insights on the use of wine yeasts. Curr Opin Food Sci 13:44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Contreras A, Hidalgo C, Henschke PA, Chambers PJ, Curtin C, Varela C (2014) Evaluation of non–Saccharomyces yeasts for the reduction of alcohol content in wine. Appl Environ Microbiol 80:1670–1678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Contreras A, Hidalgo C, Schmidt S, Henschke PA, Curtin C, Varela C (2015) The application of non-Saccharomyces yeast in fermentations with limited aeration as a strategy for the production of wine with reduced alcohol content. Int J Food Microbiol 205:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cus F, Jenko M (2013) The influence of yeast strains on the composition and sensory quality of Gewürztraminer wine. Food Technol Biotechnol 51:547–553Google Scholar
  30. Domizio P, Liu Y, Bisson LF, Barile D (2014) Use of non–Saccharomyces wine yeasts as novel sources of mannoproteins in wine. Food Microbiol 43:5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Domizio P, Liu Y, Bisson L, Barile D (2017) Cell wall polysaccharides released during the alcoholic fermentation by Schizosaccharomyces pombe and S. japonicus: quantification and characterization. Food Microbiol 61:136–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Domizio P, Lencioni L, Calamai L, Portaro L, Bisson LF (2018) Evaluation of the Yeast Schizosaccharomyces japonicus for Use in Wine Production. Am J Enol Vitic 69:266–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Escribano R, González–Arenzana L, Portu J, Garijo P, López-Alfaro I, López R, Santamaría P, Gutiérrez AR (2018) Aromatic compound production and fermentative behavior within different non–Saccharomyces species and clones. J Appl Microbiol 124:1521–1531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fleet GH (1993) The microorganisms of winemaking-isolation numeration and identification. In: Fleet GH (ed) Wine Microbiology and Biotechnology, 1st edn. Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur, pp 1–25Google Scholar
  35. Fleet GH (2008) Wine yeasts for the future. FEMS Yeast Res 8:979–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fleet GH, Heard GM (1993) Yeast-growth during winemaking. In Fleet GH (ed) Wine microbiology and biotechnology, 1st edn. Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur, pp 27–54Google Scholar
  37. Giorello F, Valera MJ, Martín V, Parada A, Salzman V, Camesasca L, Fariña L, Boido E, Medina K, Dellacassa E, Berna L, Aguilar PS, Mas A, Gaggero C, Carrau F (2018) Genomic and Transcriptomic Basis of Hanseniaspora vineae's Impact on Flavor Diversity and Wine Quality. Appl Environ Microbiol 85:e01959–e01918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gobbi M, Comitini F, Domizio P, Romani C, Lencioni L, Mannazzu I, Ciani M (2013) Lachancea thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous and sequential co–fermentation: a strategy to enhance acidity and improve the overall quality of wine. Food Microbiol 33:271–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. González-Royo E, Pascual O, Kontoudakis N, Esteruelas M, Esteve-Zarzoso B, Mas A, Canals JM, Zamora F (2015) Oenological consequences of sequential inoculation with non–Saccharomyces yeasts (Torulaspora delbrueckii or Metschnikowia pulcherrima) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in base wine for sparkling wine production. Eur Food Res Technol 240:999–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hranilovic A, Bely M, Masneuf-Pomarede I, Jiranek V, Albertin W (2017a) The evolution of is driven by geographical determination, anthropisation and flux between different ecosystems. PLoS One 12:e0184652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hranilovic A, Li S, Boss PK, Bindon K, Ristic R, Grbin PR, Van der Westhuizen T, Jiranek V (2017b) Chemical and sensory profiling of Shiraz wines co–fermented with commercial non-Saccharomyces inocula. Aust J Grape Wine Res 24:166–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jolly NP, Augustyn OHP, Pretorius IS (2006) The role and use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wine production. S Afr J Enol Vitic 27:15–39Google Scholar
  43. Jolly NP, Varela C, Pretorius IS (2014) Not your ordinary yeast: non–Saccharomyces yeasts in wine production uncovered. FEMS Yeast Res 14:215–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kapsopoulou K, Kapaklis A, Spyropoulos H (2005) Growth and fermentation characteristics of a strain of the wine yeast Kluyveromyces thermotolerans isolated in Greece. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:1599–1602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kapsopoulou K, Mourtzini A, Anthoulas M, Nerantzis E (2007) Biological acidification during grape must fermentation using mixed cultures of Kluyveromyces thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 23:735–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kemsawasd V, Branco P, Almeida MG, Caldeira J, Albergaria H, Arneborg N (2015) Cell-to-cell contact and antimicrobial peptides play a combined role in the death of Lachanchea thermotolerans during mixed-culture alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol Let 14:1–8Google Scholar
  47. Lambrechts MG, Pretorius IS (2000) Yeast and its importance to wine aroma–areview. S Afr J Enol Vitic 21:97–129Google Scholar
  48. Lleixa J, Martin V, Portillo C, Carrau F, Beltran G, Mas A (2016) Comparison of the performances of Hanseniaspora vineae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during winemaking. Front Microbiol 7:338PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Lonvaud-Funel A (1996) Microorganisms of winemaking. Cerevisia 21:55–58Google Scholar
  50. López MC, Mateo JJ, Maicas S (2015) Screening of β-glucosidase and β- xylosidase activities in four non-Saccharomyces yeast isolates. J Food Sci 80:1696–1704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Martin V, Valera MJ, Medina K, Boido E, Carrau F (2018) Oenological Impact of the Hanseniaspora/Kloeckera Yeast Genus on Wines—A Review. Fermentation 4:76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Martín V, Fariña L, Medina K, Boido E, Dellacassa E, Mas A, Carrau F (2019) Oenological attributes of the yeast Hanseniaspora vineae and its application for white and red winemaking. BIO Web Conf 12:02010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Medina-Trujillo L, González-Royo E, Sieczkowski N, Heras J, Canals JM, Zamora F (2017) Effect of sequential inoculation (Torulaspora delbrueckii/Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in the first fermentation on the foaming properties of sparkling wine. Eur Food Res Technol 243:681–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mendes-Ferreira A, Climaco MC, Mendes Faia A (2001) The role of non-Saccharomyces species in releasing glycosidic bound fraction of grape aroma components—A preliminary study. J Appl Microbiol 91:67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Milanovic V, Ciani M, Oro L, Comitini F (2012) Starmerella bombicola influences the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase level during mixed wine fermentation. Microb Cell Factories 11:18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Morales P, Rojas V, Quirós M, González R (2015) The impact of oxygen in the final alcohol content of wine fermented by a mixed starter culture. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99:3993–4003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moreira N, Mendes F, Hogg T, Vasconcelos I (2005) Alcohols, esters and heavy sulfur compounds production by pure and mixed cultures of apiculate wine yeasts. Int J Food Microbiol 103:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mylona AE, Del Fresno JM, Palomero F, Loira I, Bañuelos MA, Morata A, Calderón F, Benito S, Suárez-Lepe JA (2016) Use of Schizosaccharomyces strains for wine fermentation—effect on the wine composition and food safety. Int J Food Microbiol 232:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nissen P, Nielsen D, Arneborg N (2003) Viable Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at high concentrations cause early growth arrest of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed cultures by a cell-cell contact-mediated mechanism. Yeast 20:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Padilla B, Gil JV, Manzanares P (2016) Past and Future of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts: From Spoilage Microorganisms to Biotechnological Tools for Improving Wine Aroma Complexity. Front in Microbiol 7:411Google Scholar
  61. Peinado RA, Maestre O, Mauricio JC, Moreno JJ (2009) Use of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant to reduce the content in gluconic acid of must obtained from rotten grapes. J Agric Food Chem 57:2368–2377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ponsone ML, Nally MC, Chiotta ML, Combina M, Köhl J, Chulze SN (2016) Evaluation of the effectiveness of potential biocontrol yeasts against black sur rot and ochratoxin A occurring under greenhouse and field grape production conditions. Biol Control 103:78–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Porter TM, Divol B, Setati ME (2019) Lachancea yeast species: Origin, biochemical characteristics and oenological significance. Food Res Int 119:378–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pretorius IS (2000) Tailoring wine yeast for the new millennium: novel approaches to the ancient art of winemaking. Yeast 16:675–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Puertas B, Jiménez MJ, Cantos–Villar E, Cantoral JM, Rodríguez ME (2017) Use of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in semi–industrial sequential inoculation to improve quality of palomino and chardonnay wines in warm climates. J Appl Microbiol 122:733–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Quirós M, Rojas V, Gonzalez R, Morales P (2014) Selection of non–Saccharomyces yeast strains for reducing alcohol levels in wine by sugar respiration. Int J Food Microbiol 181:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Renault P, Coulon J, de Revel G, Barbe J–C, Bely M (2015) Increase of fruity aroma during mixed T. delbrueckii/S. cerevisiae wine fermentation is linked to specific esters enhancement. Int J Food Microbiol 207:40–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Renault P, Coulon J, Moine V, Thibon C, Bely M (2016) Enhanced 3– sulfanylhexan–1–ol production in sequential mixed fermentation with Torulaspora delbrueckii/Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a situation of synergistic interaction between two industrial strains. Front Microbiol 7:293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Romano P, Fiore C, Paraggio M, Caruso M, Capece A (2003) Function of yeast species and strains in wine flavour. Int J Food Microbiol 86:169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rosini G (1984) Assessment of dominance of added yeast in wine fermentation ripening. Microb Ecol 8:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ruiz J, Belda I, Beisert B, Navascués E, Marquina D, Calderón F, Rauhut D, Santos A, Benito S (2018) Analytical impact of Metschnikowia pulcherrima in the volatile profile of Verdejo white wines. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102:8501–8509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sadoudi M, Tourdot-Maréchal R, Rousseaux S, Steyer D, Gallardo-Chacón JJ, Ballester J, Vichi S, Guérin-Schneider R, Caixach J, Alexandre H (2012) Yeast-yeast interactions revealed by aromatic profile analysis of Sauvignon Blanc wine fermented by single or co–culture of non–Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts Food Microbiol 32:243–253Google Scholar
  73. Schütz M, Gafner J (1993) Analysis of yeast diversity during spontaneous and induced alcoholic fermentations. J Appl Bacteriol 75:551–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Varela C (2016) The impact of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in the production of alcoholic beverages. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 100:9861–9874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Varela C, Siebert T, Cozzolino D, Rose L, McLean H, Henschke PA (2009) Discovering a chemical basis for differentiating wines made by fermentation with 'wild' indigenous and inoculated yeasts: role of yeast volatile compounds. Aust J Grape Wine Res 15:238–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Varela C, Barker A, Tran T, Borneman A, Curtin C (2017) Sensory profile and volatile aroma composition of reduced alcohol Merlot wines fermented with Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces uvarum. Int J Food Microbiol 252:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Whitener MEB, Stanstrup J, Carlin S, Divol B, Du Toit M, Vrhovsek U (2017) Effect of non–Saccharomyces yeasts on the volatile chemical profile of Shiraz wine. Aust J Grape Wine Res 23:179–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Santiago Benito
    • 1
    Email author
  • Javier Ruiz
    • 2
  • Ignacio Belda
    • 1
  • Florian Kiene
    • 3
  • Beata Beisert
    • 3
  • Eva Navascués
    • 2
  • Domingo Marquina
    • 2
  • Fernando Calderón
    • 2
  • Antonio Santos
    • 2
  • Doris Rauhut
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Food Technology. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica, Alimentaria y de BiosistemasPolytechnic University of MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of Genetics, Physiology and Microbiology (Microbiology Unit), Biology FacultyComplutense University of MadridMadridSpain
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology and BiochemistryHochschule Geisenheim UniversityGeisenheimGermany

Personalised recommendations