The Introduction of a New Domain into an Existing Area of Research: Novel Discoveries Through Integration of Sleep into Cancer and Obesity Research

  • Peter JamesEmail author
  • Susan Redline


Inadequate sleep and sleep disturbances have recently emerged as important contributors to obesity and cancer risk. This chapter describes the emergence of cross-disciplinary research on sleep, energetics, and cancer risk. It describes the challenges that were encountered, how these were addressed, and the added value this integration has brought, in terms of research questions and approaches and scientific findings.


Sleep Energy balance Obesity Cancer Transdisciplinary science Collaboration Integration Team science 


  1. Adam Noah J, Spierer DK, Gu J, Bronner S. Comparison of steps and energy expenditure assessment in adults of Fitbit tracker and ultra to the actical and indirect calorimetry. J Med Eng Technol. 2013;37:456–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almendros I, Montserrat JM, Ramirez J, et al. Intermittent hypoxia enhances cancer progression in a mouse model of sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J. 2012;39:215–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almendros I, Montserrat JM, Torres M, et al. Obesity and intermittent hypoxia increase tumor growth in a mouse model of sleep apnea. Sleep Med. 2012;13:1254–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antunes LC, Levandovski R, Dantas G, Caumo W, Hidalgo MP. Obesity and shift work: chronobiological aspects. Nutr Res Rev. 2010;23:155–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnold M, Pandeya N, Byrnes G, et al. Global burden of cancer attributable to high body-mass index in 2012: a population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(1):36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ayas NT, White DP, Al-Delaimy WK, et al. A prospective study of self-reported sleep duration and incident diabetes in women. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:380–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ballard-Barbash R, Friedenreich C, Slattery M, Thune L. Obesity and body composition. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni J, editors. Cancer epidemiology and prevention, vol. 3. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  8. Beccuti G, Pannain S. Sleep and obesity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011;14:402–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Billings ME, Johnson D, Simonelli G, et al. Neighborhood walking environment and activity level are associated with obstructive sleep apnea: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Chest. 2016;150:1042.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Blackwell T, Redline S, Ancoli-Israel S, et al. Comparison of sleep parameters from actigraphy and polysomnography in older women: the SOF study. Sleep. 2008;31:283–91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Blask DE. Melatonin, sleep disturbance and cancer risk. Sleep Med Rev. 2009;13:257–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Borch KB, Braaten T, Lund E, Weiderpass E. Physical activity before and after breast cancer diagnosis and survival – the Norwegian women and cancer cohort study. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:967.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Bouchard C, Katzmarzyk PT, editors. Physical activity and obesity. 2nd ed. Baton Rouge, LA: Human Kinetics; 2010.Google Scholar
  14. Bradshaw PT, Ibrahim JG, Khankari N, et al. Post-diagnosis physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis: the Long Island Breast Cancer Study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014;145:735–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Buxton OM, Cain SW, O’Connor SP, et al. Adverse metabolic consequences in humans of prolonged sleep restriction combined with circadian disruption. Sci Transl Med. 2012;4:129ra43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Buysse DJ. Sleep health: can we define it? Does it matter? Sleep. 2014;37:9–17.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Buysse DJ, Angst J, Gamma A, Ajdacic V, Eich D, Rossler W. Prevalence, course, and comorbidity of insomnia and depression in young adults. Sleep. 2008;31:473–80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Calle EE, Kaaks R. Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004;4:579–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Calle EE, Thun MJ. Obesity and cancer. Oncogene. 2004;23:6365–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Campos-Rodriguez F, Martinez-Garcia MA, Martinez M, et al. Association between obstructive sleep apnea and cancer incidence in a large multicenter Spanish cohort. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187:99–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cappuccio FP, Miller MA. Is prolonged lack of sleep associated with obesity? BMJ. 2011;342:d3306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cappuccio FP, Taggart FM, Kandala NB, et al. Meta-analysis of short sleep duration and obesity in children and adults. Sleep. 2008;31:619–26.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Casagrande SS, Whitt-Glover MC, Lancaster KJ, Odoms-Young AM, Gary TL. Built environment and health behaviors among African Americans: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36:174–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cermakian N, Boivin DB. The regulation of central and peripheral circadian clocks in humans. Obes Rev. 2009;10(Suppl 2):25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chandler JL, Brazendale K, Beets MW, Mealing BA. Classification of physical activity intensities using a wrist-worn accelerometer in 8-12-year-old children. Pediatr Obes. 2016;11:120–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chen X, Wang R, Zee P, et al. Racial/ethnic differences in sleep disturbances: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Sleep. 2015;38:877–88.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Cheng FW, Li Y, Winkelman JW, Hu FB, Rimm EB, Gao X. Probable insomnia is associated with future total energy intake and diet quality in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104:462.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Dashti HS, Scheer FA, Jacques PF, Lamon-Fava S, Ordovas JM. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiologic evidence, mechanisms, and health implications. Adv Nutr. 2015;6:648–59.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Davis S, Mirick DK, Stevens RG. Night shift work, light at night, and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93:1557–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. de Zambotti M, Baker FC, Willoughby AR, et al. Measures of sleep and cardiac functioning during sleep using a multi-sensory commercially-available wristband in adolescents. Physiol Behav. 2016;158:143–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Diaz KM, Krupka DJ, Chang MJ, et al. Fitbit(R): an accurate and reliable device for wireless physical activity tracking. Int J Cardiol. 2015;185:138–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Engstrom CA, Strohl RA, Rose L, Lewandowski L, Stefanek ME. Sleep alterations in cancer patients. Cancer Nurs. 1999;22:143–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Evenson KR, Goto MM, Furberg RD. Systematic review of the validity and reliability of consumer-wearable activity trackers. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:159.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Fang HF, Miao NF, Chen CD, Sithole T, Chung MH. Risk of cancer in patients with insomnia, parasomnia, and obstructive sleep apnea: a Nationwide Nested Case-Control Study. J Cancer. 2015;6:1140–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Liao D, et al. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration and incident hypertension: the Penn State Cohort. Hypertension. 2012;60:929–35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Floam S, Simpson N, Nemeth E, Scott-Sutherland J, Gautam S, Haack M. Sleep characteristics as predictor variables of stress systems markers in insomnia disorder. J Sleep Res. 2015;24:296–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Friedenreich CM, Neilson HK, Lynch BM. State of the epidemiological evidence on physical activity and cancer prevention. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46:2593–604.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Friedenreich CM, Wang Q, Neilson HK, Kopciuk KA, McGregor SE, Courneya KS. Physical activity and survival after prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2016;70:576.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Fung MM, Peters K, Redline S, et al. Decreased slow wave sleep increases risk of developing hypertension in elderly men. Hypertension. 2011;58:596–603.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Gapstur SM, Diver WR, Stevens VL, Carter BD, Teras LR, Jacobs EJ. Work schedule, sleep duration, insomnia, and risk of fatal prostate cancer. Am J Prev Med. 2014;46:S26–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Girschik J, Heyworth J, Fritschi L. Self-reported sleep duration, sleep quality, and breast cancer risk in a population-based case-control study. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177:316–27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Golley RK, Maher CA, Matricciani L, Olds TS. Sleep duration or bedtime? Exploring the association between sleep timing behaviour, diet and BMI in children and adolescents. Int J Obes. 2013;37:546–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Golshiri P, Rasooli S, Emami M, Najimi A. Effects of physical activity on risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study. Int J Prev Med. 2016;7:32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Hakim F, Wang Y, Zhang SX, et al. Fragmented sleep accelerates tumor growth and progression through recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages and TLR4 signaling. Cancer Res. 2014;74:1329–37.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Hansen J. Increased breast cancer risk among women who work predominantly at night. Epidemiology. 2001;12:74–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. He C, Anand ST, Ebell MH, Vena JE, Robb SW. Circadian disrupting exposures and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2014;88:533–47.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Holick CN, Newcomb PA, Trentham-Dietz A, et al. Physical activity and survival after diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2008;17:379–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Holmes MD, Chen WY, Feskanich D, Kroenke CH, Colditz GA. Physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis. JAMA. 2005;293:2479–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hoyt MA, Bower JE, Irwin MR, Weierich MR, Stanton AL. Sleep quality and depressive symptoms after prostate cancer: the mechanistic role of cortisol. Behav Neurosci. 2016;130:351–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention. Weight control and physical activity, vol. 601. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2002.Google Scholar
  51. Iber C, Redline S, Kaplan Gilpin AM, et al. Polysomnography performed in the unattended home versus the attended laboratory setting--Sleep Heart Health Study methodology. Sleep. 2004;27:536–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Ibrahim EM, Al-Homaidh A. Physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis: meta-analysis of published studies. Med Oncol. 2011;28:753–65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Itani O, Kaneita Y, Murata A, Yokoyama E, Ohida T. Association of onset of obesity with sleep duration and shift work among Japanese adults. Sleep Med. 2011;12:341–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. James P, Banay RF, Hart JE, Laden F. A review of the health benefits of greenness. Curr Epidemiol Rep. 2015;2:131–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. James P, Hart JE, Hipp JA, et al. GPS-based exposure to greenness and walkability and accelerometry-based physical activity. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2017;26:525–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jiao L, Duan Z, Sangi-Haghpeykar H, Hale L, White DL, El-Serag HB. Sleep duration and incidence of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women. Br J Cancer. 2013;108:213–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Kakizaki M, Inoue K, Kuriyama S, et al. Sleep duration and the risk of prostate cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:176–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Kakizaki M, Kuriyama S, Sone T, et al. Sleep duration and the risk of breast cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:1502–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Kang TH, Sancar A. Circadian regulation of DNA excision repair: implications for chrono-chemotherapy. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:1665–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Kelly P, Fitzsimons C, Baker G. Should we reframe how we think about physical activity and sedentary behaviour measurement? Validity and reliability reconsidered. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016;13:32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Kerr J, Marinac C, Ellis K, et al. Comparison of accelerometry methods for estimating physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;49:617–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kredlow MA, Capozzoli MC, Hearon BA, Calkins AW, Otto MW. The effects of physical activity on sleep: a meta-analytic review. J Behav Med. 2015;38:427–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kripke DF, Garfinkel L, Wingard DL, Klauber MR, Marler MR. Mortality associated with sleep duration and insomnia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:131–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kubo T, Ozasa K, Mikami K, et al. Prospective cohort study of the risk of prostate cancer among rotating-shift workers: findings from the Japan collaborative cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;164:549–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kushi LH, Doyle C, McCullough M, et al. American Cancer Society Guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62:30–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lang C, Kalak N, Brand S, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Puhse U, Gerber M. The relationship between physical activity and sleep from mid adolescence to early adulthood. A systematic review of methodological approaches and meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2016;28:32–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Latino-Martel P, Cottet V, Druesne-Pecollo N, et al. Alcoholic beverages, obesity, physical activity and other nutritional factors, and cancer risk: a review of the evidence. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016;99:308–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Laugsand LE, Strand LB, Platou C, Vatten LJ, Janszky I. Insomnia and the risk of incident heart failure: a population study. Eur Heart J. 2014;35:1382–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Laugsand LE, Vatten LJ, Platou C, Janszky I. Insomnia and the risk of acute myocardial infarction: a population study. Circulation. 2011;124:2073–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lee IM. Physical activity and cancer prevention--data from epidemiologic studies. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:1823–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Lee JM, Kim Y, Welk GJ. Validity of consumer-based physical activity monitors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46:1840–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Lee IM, Shiroma EJ. Using accelerometers to measure physical activity in large-scale epidemiological studies: issues and challenges. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48:197–201.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Levi F, Dugue PA, Innominato P, et al. Wrist actimetry circadian rhythm as a robust predictor of colorectal cancer patients survival. Chronobiol Int. 2014;31:891–900.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Li T, Wei S, Shi Y, et al. The dose-response effect of physical activity on cancer mortality: findings from 71 prospective cohort studies. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50:339–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Li Y, Zhang X, Winkelman JW, et al. Association between insomnia symptoms and mortality: a prospective study of U.S. men. Circulation. 2014;129:737–46.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Lie JA, Kjuus H, Zienolddiny S, Haugen A, Kjaerheim K. Breast cancer among nurses: is the intensity of night work related to hormone receptor status? Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178:110–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Luo J, Sands M, Wactawski-Wende J, Song Y, Margolis KL. Sleep disturbance and incidence of thyroid cancer in postmenopausal women the Women’s Health Initiative. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177:42–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lynch BM, Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Owen N. Sedentary versus inactive: distinctions for disease prevention. Nat Rev Cardiol 2010;7:11; author reply
  79. Mantua J, Gravel N, Spencer RM. Reliability of sleep measures from four personal health monitoring devices compared to research-based Actigraphy and polysomnography. Sensors (Basel). 2016;16(5):E646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Martin CK, Nicklas T, Gunturk B, Correa JB, Allen HR, Champagne C. Measuring food intake with digital photography. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014;27(Suppl 1):72–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Martinez-Garcia MA, Campos-Rodriguez F, Duran-Cantolla J, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with cancer mortality in younger patients. Sleep Med. 2014;15:742–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Martinez-Garcia MA, Martorell-Calatayud A, Nagore E, et al. Association between sleep disordered breathing and aggressiveness markers of malignant cutaneous melanoma. Eur Respir J. 2014;43:1661–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. McElroy JA, Newcomb PA, Titus-Ernstoff L, Trentham-Dietz A, Hampton JM, Egan KM. Duration of sleep and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. J Sleep Res. 2006;15:241–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. McTiernan A. Mechanisms linking physical activity with cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2008;8:205–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Meyerhardt JA, Giovannucci EL, Holmes MD, et al. Physical activity and survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:3527–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mitchell JA, Godbole S, Moran K, et al. No evidence of reciprocal associations between daily sleep and physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48:1950.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Mitchell JA, Quante M, Godbole S, et al. Variation in actigraphy-estimated rest-activity patterns by demographic factors. Chronobiol Int. 2017;34:1042–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Moore SC, Lee IM, Weiderpass E, et al. Association of leisure-time physical activity with risk of 26 types of cancer in 1.44 million adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176:816–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Morikawa Y, Nakagawa H, Miura K, et al. Effect of shift work on body mass index and metabolic parameters. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2007;33:45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Murray K, Godbole S, Natarajan L, et al. The relations between sleep, time of physical activity, and time outdoors among adult women. PLoS One. 2017;12:e0182013.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. National Institutes of Health. National Institutes of health sleep disorders research plan. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2011.Google Scholar
  92. Nieto FJ, Peppard PE, Young T, Finn L, Hla KM, Farre R. Sleep-disordered breathing and cancer mortality: results from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:190–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Otte JL, Davis L, Carpenter JS, et al. Sleep disorders in breast cancer survivors. Support Care Cancer. 2016;24:4197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Owen N, Healy GN, Matthews CE, Dunstan DW. Too much sitting: the population health science of sedentary behavior. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2010;38:105–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Owen N, Sparling PB, Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Matthews CE. Sedentary behavior: emerging evidence for a new health risk. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85:1138–41.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Palesh O, Aldridge-Gerry A, Zeitzer JM, et al. Actigraphy-measured sleep disruption as a predictor of survival among women with advanced breast cancer. Sleep. 2014;37:837–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Pan A, Schernhammer ES, Sun Q, Hu FB. Rotating night shift work and risk of type 2 diabetes: two prospective cohort studies in women. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1001141.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Papantoniou K, Kogevinas M, Martin Sanchez V, et al. 0058 Colorectal cancer risk and shift work in a population-based case-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain). Occup Environ Med. 2014;71(Suppl 1):A5–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Patel SR, Ayas NT, Malhotra MR, et al. A prospective study of sleep duration and mortality risk in women. Sleep. 2004;27:440–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Patel SR, Hayes AL, Blackwell T, et al. The association between sleep patterns and obesity in older adults. Int J Obes. 2014;38:1159–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Patel SR, Hu FB. Short sleep duration and weight gain: a systematic review. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:643–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Patel SR, Malhotra A, White DP, Gottlieb DJ, Hu FB. Association between reduced sleep and weight gain in women. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;164:947–54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Paudel ML, Taylor BC, Ancoli-Israel S, et al. Rest/activity rhythms and mortality rates in older men: MrOS Sleep Study. Chronobiol Int. 2010;27:363–77.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Pesonen AK, Sjosten NM, Matthews KA, et al. Temporal associations between daytime physical activity and sleep in children. PLoS One. 2011;6:e22958.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Pew Internet Project Health Fact Sheet. 2014. Accessed 1 Aug 2016
  106. Phipps AI, Bhatti P, Neuhouser ML, et al. Pre-diagnostic sleep duration and sleep quality in relation to subsequent cancer survival. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016;12:495–503.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Pinheiro SP, Schernhammer ES, Tworoger SS, Michels KB. A prospective study on habitual duration of sleep and incidence of breast cancer in a large cohort of women. Cancer Res. 2006;66:5521–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Quan SF, Griswold ME, Iber C, et al. Short-term variability of respiration and sleep during unattended nonlaboratory polysomnography--the Sleep Heart Health Study. [corrected]. Sleep. 2002;25:843–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Quante M, Kaplan ER, Rueschman M, Cailler M, Buxton OM, Redline S. Practical considerations in using accelerometers to assess physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep. Sleep Health. 2015;1:275–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Roenneberg T, Allebrandt KV, Merrow M, Vetter C. Social jetlag and obesity. Curr Biol. 2012;22:939–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Rosen CL, Auckley D, Benca R, et al. A multisite randomized trial of portable sleep studies and positive airway pressure autotitration versus laboratory-based polysomnography for the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: the HomePAP study. Sleep. 2012;35:757–67.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. Roth T. Insomnia: definition, prevalence, etiology, and consequences. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3:S7–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Rothney MP, Brychta RJ, Meade NN, Chen KY, Buchowski MS. Validation of the ActiGraph two-regression model for predicting energy expenditure. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42:1785–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Roveda E, Vitale JA, Bruno E, et al. Protective effect of aerobic physical activity on sleep behavior in breast cancer survivors. Integr Cancer Ther. 2016;Google Scholar
  115. Saddichha S. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic insomnia. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2010;13:94–102.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Sallis JF, Floyd MF, Rodriguez DA, Saelens BE. Role of built environments in physical activity, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2012;125:729–37.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Savard J, Ivers H, Savard MH, Morin CM. Long-term effects of two formats of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia comorbid with breast cancer. Sleep. 2016;39:813–23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Savard J, Ivers H, Villa J, Caplette-Gingras A, Morin CM. Natural course of insomnia comorbid with cancer: an 18-month longitudinal study. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:3580–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Savard J, Morin CM. Insomnia in the context of cancer: a review of a neglected problem. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:895–908.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Schernhammer ES, Kroenke CH, Laden F, Hankinson SE. Night work and risk of breast cancer. Epidemiology. 2006;17:108–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Schernhammer ES, Laden F, Speizer FE, et al. Rotating night shifts and risk of breast cancer in women participating in the nurses’ health study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93:1563–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Schernhammer ES, Laden F, Speizer FE, et al. Night-shift work and risk of colorectal cancer in the nurses’ health study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:825–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Schmid D, Leitzmann MF. Association between physical activity and mortality among breast cancer and colorectal cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Oncol. 2014;25:1293–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Shen D, Mao W, Liu T, et al. Sedentary behavior and incident cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. PLoS One. 2014;9:e105709.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Shlisky JD, Hartman TJ, Kris-Etherton PM, Rogers CJ, Sharkey NA, Nickols-Richardson SM. Partial sleep deprivation and energy balance in adults: an emerging issue for consideration by dietetics practitioners. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112:1785–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sigurdardottir LG, Valdimarsdottir UA, Fall K, et al. Circadian disruption, sleep loss, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review of epidemiologic studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2012;21:1002–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Slattery ML. Physical activity and colorectal cancer. Sports Med. 2004;34:239–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Smith C, MacNeill C. Impaired motor memory for a pursuit rotor task following Stage 2 sleep loss in college students. J Sleep Res. 1994;3:206–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Soric M, Starc G, Borer KT, et al. Associations of objectively assessed sleep and physical activity in 11-year old children. Ann Hum Biol. 2015;42:31–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Spiegel K, Leproult R, L’Hermite-Baleriaux M, Copinschi G, Penev PD, Van Cauter E. Leptin levels are dependent on sleep duration: relationships with sympathovagal balance, carbohydrate regulation, cortisol, and thyrotropin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5762–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Spiegel K, Tasali E, Penev P, Van Cauter E. Brief communication: sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141:846–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Stickgold R, Walker MP. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Sleep Med. 2007;8:331–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Straif K, Baan R, Grosse Y, et al. Carcinogenicity of shift-work, painting, and fire-fighting. Lancet Oncol. 2007;8:1065–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Sturgeon SR, Luisi N, Balasubramanian R, Reeves KW. Sleep duration and endometrial cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control. 2012;23:547–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. Suwazono Y, Dochi M, Sakata K, et al. A longitudinal study on the effect of shift work on weight gain in male Japanese workers. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:1887–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Takacs J, Pollock CL, Guenther JR, Bahar M, Napier C, Hunt MA. Validation of the fitbit one activity monitor device during treadmill walking. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;17:496–500.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Tasali E, Leproult R, Ehrmann DA, Van Cauter E. Slow-wave sleep and the risk of type 2 diabetes in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1044–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Thompson CL, Larkin EK, Patel S, Berger NA, Redline S, Li L. Short duration of sleep increases risk of colorectal adenoma. Cancer. 2011;117:841–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Troiano RP, Berrigan D, Dodd KW, Masse LC, Tilert T, McDowell M. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:181–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Troiano RP, McClain JJ, Brychta RJ, Chen KY. Evolution of accelerometer methods for physical activity research. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48:1019–23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Turek FW, Joshu C, Kohsaka A, et al. Obesity and metabolic syndrome in circadian clock mutant mice. Science. 2005;308:1043–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Van Blarigan EL, Meyerhardt JA. Role of physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33:1825–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. van Hees VT, Renstrom F, Wright A, et al. Estimation of daily energy expenditure in pregnant and non-pregnant women using a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer. PLoS One. 2011;6:e22922.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Van Someren EJ. Actigraphic monitoring of sleep and circadian rhythms. Handb Clin Neurol. 2011;98:55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Verkasalo PK, Lillberg K, Stevens RG, et al. Sleep duration and breast cancer: a prospective cohort study. Cancer Res. 2005;65:9595–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Lin HM, et al. Chronic insomnia is associated with nyctohemeral activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: clinical implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:3787–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Pejovic S, Calhoun S, Karataraki M, Bixler EO. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with type 2 diabetes: a population-based study. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1980–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Viswanathan AN, Hankinson SE, Schernhammer ES. Night shift work and the risk of endometrial cancer. Cancer Res. 2007;67:10618–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Vooijs M, Alpay LL, Snoeck-Stroband JB, et al. Validity and usability of low-cost accelerometers for internet-based self-monitoring of physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Interact J Med Res. 2014;3:e14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Wang F, Yeung KL, Chan WC, et al. A meta-analysis on dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2013;24:2724–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Willett W. Nutritional Epidemiology. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2013.Google Scholar
  152. Wolf AM, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, et al. Reproducibility and validity of a self-administered physical activity questionnaire. Int J Epidemiol. 1994;23:991–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wolin KY, Carson K, Colditz GA. Obesity and cancer. Oncologist. 2010;15:556–65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. Worldwide Wearable Computing Market Gains Momentum with Shipments Reaching 19.2 Million in 2014 and Climbing to Nearly 112 Million in 2018, Says IDC. 2014. Accessed 31 July 2014.
  155. Wu AH, Wang R, Koh WP, Stanczyk FZ, Lee HP, Yu MC. Sleep duration, melatonin and breast cancer among Chinese women in Singapore. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:1244–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Wu Y, Zhang D, Kang S. Physical activity and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;137:869–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Xiao Q, Signorello LB, Brinton LA, Cohen SS, Blot WJ, Matthews CE. Sleep duration and breast cancer risk among black and white women. Sleep Med. 2016;20:25–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Young T, Peppard PE, Gottlieb DJ. Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea: a population health perspective. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:1217–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Zhao I, Bogossian F, Song S, Turner C. The association between shift work and unhealthy weight: a cross-sectional analysis from the Nurses and Midwives’ e-cohort Study. J Occup Environ Med. 2011;53:153–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zhu G, Zhang X, Wang Y, Xiong H, Zhao Y, Sun F. Effects of exercise intervention in breast cancer survivors: a meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trails. Onco Targets Ther. 2016;9:2153–68.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. Zinkhan M, Berger K, Hense S, et al. Agreement of different methods for assessing sleep characteristics: a comparison of two actigraphs, wrist and hip placement, and self-report with polysomnography. Sleep Med. 2014;15:1107–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Population MedicineHarvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care InstituteBostonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Sleep MedicineHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Division of Sleep and Circadian DisordersBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations