Swimming Professors and Entrepreneurs
This chapter focuses on the nineteenth-century swimming professors whose entrepreneurial activities replicated the working lives of the artisans that were typical of the social class from which they had originated. These craftsmen utilized their expertise and shared experiences to develop swimming skills and then to employ this emerging knowledge in an increasingly commercialized environment. Some of these professors’ lives are explored in detail to highlight the importance of family to their success and to illustrate the typical characteristics of the working practices of contemporary professors, while also demonstrating that their activities extended nationwide. Two prominent one-legged professors of the period, William Woodbridge and Charley Moore, are then discussed before the chapter concludes with a discussion of the financial problems and other difficulties encountered by swimming professors.
- ‘Local government and public services: Public utilities’, A History of the County of Chester, vol. 5, part 2: The City of Chester: Culture, Buildings, Institutions (2005), 35–49. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=57305 (accessed June 23, 2009).
- Dudgeon, Robert Ellis, Swimming Baths of London. London: Henry Turner, 1870.Google Scholar
- Memories Awash with Pools Past, http://www.thisistotalessex.co.uk/latestnews/Memories-awash-pools-past/article-1022604-detail/article.html (accessed May 26, 2009).
- Stevens Captain, Captain Stevens’ System of Swimming; The Only Rules for a Quick Initiation in the Same. 2nd ed. London: Biggs and Son, 1845.Google Scholar
- Watson, Robert, “Comparative Generations,” in Swimmers and Swimming or, The Swimmer’s Album, ed. Charles Newman, 18–22. London: Henry Kemshead, 1899.Google Scholar
- Wilson, William, The Swimming Instructor. London: Horace Cox, 1883.Google Scholar