Determination of Calcium and pH Level in Urine for Calcium-Based Kidney Stone Diagnosis Using Arduino Microcontroller
This study aimed to create a prototype that can detect level of calcium and pH to analyse whether the urine is positive of hypercalciuria – a condition of having high amount of calcium, uric acid crystallization (pH < 5.8), and calcium oxalate formation (pH > 6.8) in urine. Five subjects were tested for their pH level and calcium level with three trials each. Results from paired t-test showed that there are no significant differences in the mean values of the prototype-tested and laboratory-tested pH level (p = 0.310) and calcium level (n = 15. p = 0.781). This indicates that values obtained from two different methods such as using prototype sensor and laboratory testing imply closely related values provided by almost zero mean differences of the two parameters used.
KeywordsKidney stone diagnosis Calcium sensor PH sensor Microcontroller
This study is funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), under the scholarship program for master’s degree in Engineering Research and Development for Technology through the academic support of Mapúa University.
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