Mangroves: A Shield Against Storms and Wave Actions
Storms and subsequent wave actions and tidal surges are common in coastal zones, bays and estuaries. Mangrove forests play a great role in the protection of coastal communities from the fury of cyclones and storms. In the coastal region, mangrove vegetation has the ability to attenuate wave which are generated by severe storms and tidal surges. SWAN model helps to determine the effect of mangrove vegetation on the wave height, which has been explained in this chapter considering dominant mangrove species of Indian Sundarbans.
KeywordsStorms Waves Tidal surges SWAN model
- Badola, R., & Hussain, S. A. (2005b). Environmental benefits of mangrove forests: Perceptions of local people from the Bhitarkanika conservation area, India. International Forest Review, 7(5), 223.Google Scholar
- Brinkman, R. M., Massel, S. R., Ridd, P. V., & Furukawa, K. (1997). Surface wave attenuation in mangrove forests. Pacific Coasts and Ports, 97(2), 941–946.Google Scholar
- Dinar, C. I. (2002). Research on Tsunami hazard and its effects on Indonesia coastal region: First year’s activities report. Proceedings of the Fifth Multi-lateral Workshop on the Development of Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation Technologies and their Integration for Asia-Pacific Region, Bangkok, Thailand (5th EqTAP WS).Google Scholar
- Hiraishi, T. (2003). Tsunami risk and countermeasure in Asia and Pacific area: Applicability of greenbelt Tsunami prevention in the Asia and Pacific Region. Sixth Multi-lateral Workshop on Development of Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation Technologies and its Integration for the Asia-Pacific Region (6th EqTAP WS) organized by Earthquake Disaster Mitigation Research Center, NIED. Ise-Kashikojima, Japan.Google Scholar
- Hiraishi, T., & Harada, K. (2003). Greenbelt tsunami prevention in South Pacific region. Report of the Port and Airport Research Institute 42, 1e23. Available from: http://eqtap.edm.bosai.go.jp/useful_outputs/report/hiraishi/data/papers/greenbelt.pdf
- Hiraishi, T., & Koike, N. (2001). Tsunami risk assessment and management: A practical countermeasure to Tsunami risk in Asia and Pacific region. Fourth Multi-lateral Workshop on Development of Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation Technologies and its Integration for the Asia-Pacific Region (4th EqTAP WS), Kamakura-City, Kanagawa, Japan.Google Scholar
- Kabir, M. M., Ahmed, M. M. Z., Azam, M. H. & Jakobsen, F. (2006). Effect of afforestation on storm surge propagation: a mathematical model study. Institute of Water Modeling. http://www.iwmbd.org/html/PUBS/publications/P015.PDF. July 10, 2006.
- Koteswaram, P. (1984). Climate and mangrove forests. Report of the second introductory training course on mangrove ecosystems (pp. 29–46). Sponsored by UNDP and UNESCO, Goa, India.Google Scholar
- McCoy, E. D., Mushinsky, H. R., Johnson, D., & Meshaka, W. E. (1996). Mangrove damage caused by hurricane Andrew on the southwestern coast of Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science, 59(1), 1–8.Google Scholar
- Mitra, A., & Zaman, S. (2016). Basics of marine and estuarine ecology. Springer: India. ISBN 978-81-322-2705-2.Google Scholar
- Shrestha, M.L. (Ed.). (1998). The impact of tropical cyclones on the coastal regions of SAARC countries and their influence in the region (pp. 329). Agargaon, Bangladesh: SAARC Meteorological Research Centre.Google Scholar
- Sinha, M., Roy, S., Zaman, S. & Mitra, A. (2019). Role of mangrove biomass in numerical wave models for reducing coastal vulnerability in the estuaries of Indian Sundarbans, Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR), 6 (4), 482–487.Google Scholar