Mangroves: A Shield Against Storms and Wave Actions

  • Abhijit Mitra


Storms and subsequent wave actions and tidal surges are common in coastal zones, bays and estuaries. Mangrove forests play a great role in the protection of coastal communities from the fury of cyclones and storms. In the coastal region, mangrove vegetation has the ability to attenuate wave which are generated by severe storms and tidal surges. SWAN model helps to determine the effect of mangrove vegetation on the wave height, which has been explained in this chapter considering dominant mangrove species of Indian Sundarbans.


Storms Waves Tidal surges SWAN model 


  1. Badola, R., & Hussain, S. A. (2005a). Valuing the storm protection function of Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem, India. Environmental Conservation, 32(1), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Badola, R., & Hussain, S. A. (2005b). Environmental benefits of mangrove forests: Perceptions of local people from the Bhitarkanika conservation area, India. International Forest Review, 7(5), 223.Google Scholar
  3. Brinkman, R. M., Massel, S. R., Ridd, P. V., & Furukawa, K. (1997). Surface wave attenuation in mangrove forests. Pacific Coasts and Ports, 97(2), 941–946.Google Scholar
  4. Dinar, C. I. (2002). Research on Tsunami hazard and its effects on Indonesia coastal region: First year’s activities report. Proceedings of the Fifth Multi-lateral Workshop on the Development of Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation Technologies and their Integration for Asia-Pacific Region, Bangkok, Thailand (5th EqTAP WS).Google Scholar
  5. Hiraishi, T. (2003). Tsunami risk and countermeasure in Asia and Pacific area: Applicability of greenbelt Tsunami prevention in the Asia and Pacific Region. Sixth Multi-lateral Workshop on Development of Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation Technologies and its Integration for the Asia-Pacific Region (6th EqTAP WS) organized by Earthquake Disaster Mitigation Research Center, NIED. Ise-Kashikojima, Japan.Google Scholar
  6. Hiraishi, T., & Harada, K. (2003). Greenbelt tsunami prevention in South Pacific region. Report of the Port and Airport Research Institute 42, 1e23. Available from:
  7. Hiraishi, T., & Koike, N. (2001). Tsunami risk assessment and management: A practical countermeasure to Tsunami risk in Asia and Pacific region. Fourth Multi-lateral Workshop on Development of Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation Technologies and its Integration for the Asia-Pacific Region (4th EqTAP WS), Kamakura-City, Kanagawa, Japan.Google Scholar
  8. Kabir, M. M., Ahmed, M. M. Z., Azam, M. H. & Jakobsen, F. (2006). Effect of afforestation on storm surge propagation: a mathematical model study. Institute of Water Modeling. July 10, 2006.
  9. Koteswaram, P. (1984). Climate and mangrove forests. Report of the second introductory training course on mangrove ecosystems (pp. 29–46). Sponsored by UNDP and UNESCO, Goa, India.Google Scholar
  10. Liu, W. C., Hsu, M. H., & Wang, C. F. (2003). Modeling of flow resistance in mangrove swamp at mouth of tidal Keelung River, Taiwan. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 129(2), 86–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Massel, S. R., Furukawa, K., & Brinkman, R. M. (1999). Surface wave propagation in mangrove forests. Fluid Dynamics Research, 24, 219–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mazda, Y., Wolanski, E., King, B., Sase, A., Ohtsuka, D., & Magi, M. (1997). Drag force due to vegetation in mangrove swamps. Mangroves and Salt Marshes, 1, 193–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mazda, Y., Kobashi, D., & Okada, S. (2005). Tidal-scale hydrodynamics within mangrove swamps. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 13, 647–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McCoy, E. D., Mushinsky, H. R., Johnson, D., & Meshaka, W. E. (1996). Mangrove damage caused by hurricane Andrew on the southwestern coast of Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science, 59(1), 1–8.Google Scholar
  15. Mitra, A. (2013). Sensitivity of mangrove ecosystem to changing climate (p. 323). Springer. Scholar
  16. Mitra, A., & Zaman, S. (2015). Blue carbon reservoir of the blue planet. Springer. ISBN 978-81-322-2106-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mitra, A., & Zaman, S. (2016). Basics of marine and estuarine ecology. Springer: India. ISBN 978-81-322-2705-2.Google Scholar
  18. Shrestha, M.L. (Ed.). (1998). The impact of tropical cyclones on the coastal regions of SAARC countries and their influence in the region (pp. 329). Agargaon, Bangladesh: SAARC Meteorological Research Centre.Google Scholar
  19. Sinha, M., Roy, S., Zaman, S. & Mitra, A. (2019). Role of mangrove biomass in numerical wave models for reducing coastal vulnerability in the estuaries of Indian Sundarbans, Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR), 6 (4), 482–487.Google Scholar
  20. Wu, Y., Falconer, R. A., & Struve, J. (2001). Mathematical modeling of tidal currents in mangrove forests. Environmental Modelling and Software, 16, 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Internet Reference

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhijit Mitra
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Marine ScienceUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations