Advanced Practice Nursing in Africa
- 754 Downloads
In Africa, health systems will collapse without nurses. The growth of APN programs in Africa is indicative of the recognition of this role in the roll out of universal healthcare. This chapter highlights the development of the Advanced Practice Nursing role in Africa with examples from many of the countries including a description of the origins of the role, educational programs, and legislation or policies that promoted its development. Key leadership actions are highlighted including the role of key stakeholders in the region. While Africa has many challenges, including limited resources, opposition from the medical profession, inefficient regulations and policies, and lack of benchmark educational programs, it also has many opportunities for expansion of the APN role. These opportunities are highlighted including the influence of nursing leaders and other stakeholders as well as through increased resources for health.
KeywordsRegulation Scope of practice Education & training Role of the APN
- Anathan J. Family nurse practitioners: essential to eswatini’s health. Boston: Seed Global Health; 2018. https://seedglobalhealth.org/family-nurse-practitioners-essential-to-eswatinis-health/#.XN1eBhQzapo. Accessed 16 May 2019.Google Scholar
- Asuquo EF, Etowa J, John M, Ndiok A, Sampson-Akpan P, Edet O. Assessing nurses’ capacity for health research and policy engagement in Nigeria. J Appl Med Sci. 2013;2(4):35–51.Google Scholar
- Bryant-Lukosius D, DiCenso A. A framework for the introduction and evaluation of advanced practice nursing roles. J Adv Nurs. 2004;48(5):530–40. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03235.x.
- Christmals CD, Aziato L, Ditlopo P, Rispel L. “We are not doing too well” Factors that influence nurses’ ability to provide leadership for universal health coverage reforms in Ghana. In: 2nd International Leadership Conference, Accra; 2019. p. 1–15.Google Scholar
- Dlamini CP, Kaplan L, Stuart-Shor E, Mathunjwa-Dlamini TR. Report on the landscape assessment of readiness to introduce the family nurse practitioner role in Swaziland. Mbabane: Seed Global Health; 2018. http://seedglobalhealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Landscape-Assessment-Report-Final.pdf.Google Scholar
- Dlamini CP, Khumalo T, Nkwanyana N, Mathunjwa-Dlamini T, Macera L. Nsibandze BS, Kaplan L, Stuart-Shor EM. Developing and implementing the Family Nurse Practitioner Role in Eswatini: Implications for education, practice and policy. Global Health. 2020;86(1):50, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.5334/aogh.2813.
- Duma S, Dipenaar J, Bhengu B, Oosthuizen A, Philips M, Naude S, Uys LR. Specialist and advanced specialist nursing and midwifery practice. Trends Nurs. 2012;1(1).Google Scholar
- Fairall L, Bachmann MO, Lombard C, Timmerman V, Uebel K, Zwarenstein M, et al. Task shifting of antiretroviral treatment from doctors to primary-care nurses in South Africa (STRETCH): a pragmatic, parallel, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2012;380(9845):889–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60730-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- GCNM. Ghana college of nurses and midwives: what we do. 2019. http://www.gcnm.edu.gh/about_us/what_we_do.php. Accessed 19 May 2019.
- GhanaWeb. University of Development Studies to run courses in nursing. General News 1999-05-24. 1999. https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/University-of-Development-Studies-to-run-courses-in-nursing-6884. Accessed 22 May 2019.
- INEPEA. Advanced nursing practice competence/capability in East Africa. 2008. https://www.building-leadership-for-health.org.uk/app/download/3727593/01+INEPEA+Competence+and+Capability+course+framework.pdf.
- International Council of Nurses. Nurses: a force for change. Geneva: International Council of Nurses; 2015a. http://www.denosa.org.za/DAdmin/upload/news/IND_2015-Eng1.pdf.Google Scholar
- International Council of Nurses. Nursing and health policy perspectives. Int Nurs Rev. 2015b:283–4.Google Scholar
- Joel LA. Advanced practice nursing : essentials for role development. 4th ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company; 2017. https://books.google.co.za/books?id=alE8DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=In+1981,+Botswana+established+the+first+FNP+Program+in+Africa&source=bl&ots=idmG998smc&sig=ACfU3U2jKH25kP6fXJTwCpe6CT70r_XXSw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwimh9D3v5jiAhX0tHEKHWvVCwEQ6AEwAXoECAkQ.Google Scholar
- Mathunjwa M, Potgieter E. The roles of family nurse practitioners (FNPs) in Swaziland and their needs for continuing education. Afr J Nurs Midwifery. 2004;6(2):13–9. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cin20&AN=106474613&site=ehost-live.Google Scholar
- Mtuya CC, Blood-Siegfried J. Development of the NP Role in Tanzania. In: 10th ICN NP/APN conference. Rotterdam, Netherlands; 2018. pp. 1–20. http://www.npapn2018.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/88-Development-of-the-nurse-practitioner-role-in-Tanzania.pdf.
- Mwangi SW. How international council of nurses can export advanced registered nurse practitioner policies to Africa. Geneva. 2017. http://www.icn.ch/forum/viewtopic.php?f=47&t=780&sid=10aef347f40dc3f4be5a329b712a1a55.
- N&MC. Nurse practitioners. 2014. http://nmcgh.org/t3f/en/training-institutions/80-professionals/13-workshop-for-nurse-practitioners. Accessed 19 May 2019.
- Picard LA. Rural development in Botswana: administrative structures and public policy. J Dev Areas. 1979;13(3):283–300. Published by: College of Business, Tennessee State University. Rural Development in Botswana: Administrative Structures and Pub. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4190662.Google Scholar
- Rispel LC. Transforming nursing policy, practice and management in South Africa. Glob Health Action. 2015;1(28005):8–11.Google Scholar
- Sanne I, Orrell C, Fox MP, Conradie F, Ive P, Zeinecker J, et al. Nurse versus doctor management of HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (CIPRA-SA): a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9734):33–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60894-X.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sietio OS. The family nurse practitioner in Botswana: issues and challenges. In: The 8th international nurse practitioner conference in San Diego, California, USA. (267); 2000. pp. 1–8. https://international.aanp.org/Content/docs/Botswana.pdf.
- Tong B. Describing the health care needs of school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa in order to develop a model of a nurse-run school-based health clinic. Yale School of Nursing Digital Theses. Yale University. 2015. http://elischolar.library.yale.edu/ysndt/1044.