PM Models and Concepts

  • Marc Helmold
Part of the Management for Professionals book series (MANAGPROF)


The balance scorecard (BSC) is a strategic management and performance management tool and was first introduced by the accounting academic Dr. Robert Kaplan and business executive and theorist Dr. David Norton. It was first published in 1992 in a Harvard Business Review article. Dr. Kaplan and Dr. Norton took previous metric performance measures and adapted them to include nonfinancial information. The BSC is the performance metric used in strategic management to identify and improve various internal functions of a business and their resulting external outcomes. It is used to measure and provide feedback to organizations. Data collection is crucial to providing quantitative results, as the information gathered is interpreted by managers and executives and used to make better decisions for the organization.


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  4. Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. P. (1996). Using the balanced scorecard as a strategic management system. Harvard Business Review. 01-02/1996.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc Helmold
    • 1
  1. 1.IUBHBerlinGermany

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