Cybersickness Among Gamers: An Online Survey

  • Stanislava RangelovaEmail author
  • Daniel Motus
  • Elisabeth André
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 973)


In recent years a trend of head-mounted displays (HMDs) appears on the consumer market and it expands the entertainment dimension by adding a new segment to it called virtual reality (VR) gaming. However, VR games not only bring enjoyment to the players, but they also bring discomfort called cybersickness. In this study, an online survey among gamers was used to identify whether and which symptoms of cybersickness occur while playing VR games. The results showed that the most experienced symptoms during or after VR exposure regarding gaming are nausea, fatigue, and general discomfort. Additionally, the paper aims to give insights about what gamers do against cybersickness associated with VR games. The findings showed that the side effects of VR games are widespread among gamers and an appropriate solution has not been found yet. This paper is a starting point for more extended research on cybersickness induced by VR games.


Cybersickness Virtual reality Video games Simulation sickness Human factors 


  1. 1.
    Joseph, J., LaViola, J.: A discussion of cybersickness in virtual environments. SIGCHI Bull. 32, 47–56 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kennedy, R.S., Drexler, J.M., Compton, D.E., Stanney, K.M., Lanham, D.S., Harm, D.L.: Configural scoring of simulator sickness, cybersickness and space adaptation syndrome: similarities and differences. Virtual Adapt. Environ. Appl. Implic. Hum. Perform. 247 (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reason, Brand, J.J.: Motion Sickness. Academic Press Inc. (1975)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Riccio, G.E., Stoffregen, T.A.: An ecological theory of motion sickness and postural instability. Ecol. Psychol. 3, 195–240 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Prothero, J.D.: The role of rest Frames in Vection, Presence and Motion Sickness, pp. 169. University of Washington (1998)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jinjakam, C., Hamamoto, K.: Simulator sickness in immersive virtual environment. Biomed. Eng. Int. Conf. (BMEiCON) 2012, 1–4 (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cobb, S.V.G., Nichols, S., Ramsey, A., Wilson, J.R.: Virtual reality-induced symptoms and effects (VRISE). Presence 8, 169–186 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    Biocca, F.: Will simulation sickness slow down the diffusion of virtual environment technology? Presence: Teleoper. Virt. Environ. 1, 334–343 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davis, S., Nesbitt, K., Nalivaiko, E.: Comparing the onset of cybersickness using the Oculus Rift and two virtual roller coasters. In: 11th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment (IE 2015), pp. 3–14. ACS (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shafer, D.M., Carbonara, C.P., Korpi, M.F.: Factors affecting enjoyment of virtual reality games: a comparison involving consumer-grade virtual reality technology. Games Health J. 8(1), 15–23 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pallavicini, F., Ferrari, A., Pepe, A., Garcea, G., Zanacchi, A., Mantovani, F.: Effectiveness of virtual reality survival horror games for the emotional elicitation: preliminary insights using resident evil 7: biohazard. In: International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 87–101. Springer (2018)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Walch, M., Frommel, J., Rogers, K., Schuessel, F., Hock, P., Dobbelstein, D., Weber, M.: Evaluating VR driving simulation from a player experience perspective. In: Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 2982–2989. ACM, Denver, Colorado, USA (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fernandes, A.S., Feiner, S.K.: Combating VR sickness through subtle dynamic field-of-view modification. In: 2016 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), pp. 201–210. (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Farmani, Y., Teather, R.J.: Viewpoint snapping to reduce cybersickness in virtual reality (2018)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Whittinghill, D.M., Ziegler, B., Case, T., Moore, B.: Nasum virtualis: a simple technique for reducing simulator sickness. In: Games Developers Conference (GDC) (2015)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Curtis, M.K., Dawson, K., Jackson, K., Litwin, L., Meusel, C., Dorneich, M.C., Gilbert, S.B., Kelly, J., Stone, R., Winer, E.: Mitigating visually induced motion sickness. Proc. Hum. Factors Ergon. Soc. Ann. Meet. 59, 1839–1843 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Curry, R., Artz, B., Cathey, L., Grant, P., Greenberg, J.: Kennedy SSQ results: fixed vs. motion-base ford simulators (2002)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Merhi, O., Faugloire, E., Flanagan, M., Stoffregen, T.A.: Motion sickness, console video games, and head-mounted displays. Hum. Factors 49, 920–934 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stoffregen, T.A., Smart Jr., L.J.: Postural instability precedes motion sickness. Brain Res. Bull. 47, 437–448 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rebenitsch, L.R.: Cybersickness Prioritization and Modeling. Michigan State University (2015)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rebenitsch, L., Owen, C.: Individual variation in susceptibility to cybersickness. In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, pp. 309–317. ACM, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA (2014)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stanney, K.M., Hale, K.S., Nahmens, I., Kennedy, R.S.: What to expect from immersive virtual environment exposure: influences of gender, body mass index, and past experience. Hum. Factors: J. Hum. Factors Ergon. Soc. 45, 504–520 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wright, R.H.: Helicopter Simulator Sickness: A State-of-the-Art Review of Its Incidence, Causes, and Treatment (1995)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Matas, N.A., Nettelbeck, T., Burns, N.R.: Dropout during a driving simulator study: a survival analysis. J. Saf. Res. 55, 159–169 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Basu, A., Ball, C., Manning, B., Johnsen, K.: Effects of user physical fitness on performance in virtual reality. In: 2016 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), pp. 233–234 (2016)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Taha, Z.H., Jen, Y.H., Gadzila, R.A.R., Chai, A.P.T.: The effect of body weight and height on incidence of cyber sickness among immersive environment malaysian users. In: Proceedings of 17th World Congress on Ergonomics (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ames, S.L., Wolffsohn, J.S., Mcbrien, N.A.: The development of a symptom questionnaire for assessing virtual reality viewing using a head-mounted display. Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 168–176 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Golding, J.F.: Motion sickness susceptibility. Auton. Neurosci. Basic Clin. 129, 67–76 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Booth, M.: Assessment of physical activity: an international perspective. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport 71, 114–120 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Regan, C.: An investigation into nausea and other side-effects of head-coupled immersive virtual reality. Virt. Real. 1, 17–31 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Duh, H.B.-L., Parker, D.E., Furness, T.A.: An independent visual background reduced simulator sickness in a driving simulator. Presence: Teleoper. Virt. Environ. 13, 578–588 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Frommel, J., Sonntag, S., Weber, M.: Effects of controller-based locomotion on player experience in a virtual reality exploration game. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, p. 30. ACM (2017)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yoon, H., Lee, S., Park, J., Choi, Y., Cho, S.: Development of racing game using motion seat. In: 2017 International Symposium on Ubiquitous Virtual Reality (ISUVR), pp. 4–7. IEEE (2017)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanislava Rangelova
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Daniel Motus
    • 1
  • Elisabeth André
    • 2
  1. 1.BMW GroupMunichGermany
  2. 2.Human Centered Multimedia, Augsburg UniversityAugsburgGermany

Personalised recommendations