Communication Systems

  • Hermann Kopetz


Components in cyberspace interact by the exchange of messages that transport the data that must be shared by the components. The messages flow across communication channels according to the rules of the chosen communication protocol. The payload of a message, i.e., the user data in the message, is not modified during transport.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann Kopetz
    • 1
  1. 1.Vienna University of TechnologyBaden-SiegenfeldAustria

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