Advertisement

The Effects of Using Socio-culturally Targeted Communications on the Uptake and Adherence to Positive Psychology Interventions

  • Jason Moran
  • Zelda di Blasi
  • Annalisa SettiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Younger populations are less likely to engage with Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) while potentially benefiting from them; and socially disadvantaged individuals have been shown to have lower levels of well-being, therefore also potentially befitting from PPIs. Online dissemination could be a means to reach these populations, however adherence to such interventions is often low. We aimed to test whether tailoring the message to the target demographics socio-cultural characteristics can promote adherence to the Three Blessings PPI, more-so than the expert heuristic. Participants (n = 261) were randomly assigned to one of three videos explaining the PPI, and then self-reported uptake and adherence rates were recorded. Video 1 was the original PPI video by Martin Seligman. Video 2, utilized the similarity heuristic, matching the target demographics using visual socio-cultural markers (clothes style)—but not linguistically. Video 3 matched the target demographics linguistically (slang/swear language) in addition to the visual markers used in Video 2. Greater uptake and adherence was expected for Video 1, if the expert heuristic was more effective. Greater uptake and adherence was expected for Video 2, and more-so Video 3 if the similarity heuristic was more effective. Results suggest that the similarity heuristics utilized in the study influenced adherence for younger cohorts, but not uptake. This finding has important implications when targeting specific groups for PPIs. The response rate data also provides useful insights for both researchers and positive psychology practitioners. Future research is needed on different samples representative of different sub-cultures and demographic characteristics in the population.

Keywords

Expert heuristic Similarity heuristic Targeting Online intervention Uptake Adherence Positive interventions Three blessings 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This project was conducted as part of the Jason Moran Masters thesis in Coaching Psychology, supervised by Dr. Annalisa Setti. The authors would like to thank [name], who was the actor in the videos.

References

  1. Achor, S. (2011). The happiness advantage: The seven principles of positive psychology that fuel success and performance at work. Random House. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=6a822zBGfjQC&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=achor+happiness&ots=Q5uq35tTyl&sig=G9o2zda86vq-H1soS9ClSBMZ1Fw.
  2. Anderson, B., Fagan, P., Woodnutt, T., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2012). Facebook psychology: Popular questions answered by research. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 1(1), 23.Google Scholar
  3. Argyle, M. (2003). 18 causes and correlates of happiness. Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology, 353. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=-wIXAwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA353&dq=causes+and+correlates+of+happiness&ots=Zoy-k4dhd1&sig=Z791yhq4zb8rQMPUXMWpvwFT2G0.
  4. Ashby, F. G., Isen, A. M., & Turken, A. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review, 106(3), 529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Beatty, L., & Binnion, C. (2016). A systematic review of predictors of, and reasons for, adherence to online psychological interventions. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23(6), 776–794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bechtel, G. A., & Davidhizar, R. E. (1999). Integrating cultural diversity in patient education. In Seminars for nurse managers (Vol. 7, pp. 193–197). Retrieved from http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/11013588.
  7. Bickman, L. (1974). The social power of a uniform. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 4(1), 47–61.Google Scholar
  8. Blass, T. (1999). The Milgram paradigm after 35 years: Some things we now know about obedience to authority. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29(5), 955–978.Google Scholar
  9. Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13, 119.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-119.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Brewer, M. B. (1999). The psychology of prejudice: Ingroup love and outgroup hate? Journal of Social Issues, 55(3), 429–444.Google Scholar
  11. Brug, J., Oenema, A., & Campbell, M. (2003). Past, present, and future of computer-tailored nutrition education. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77(4), 1028S–1034S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Burger, J. M., Messian, N., Patel, S., del Prado, A., & Anderson, C. (2004). What a coincidence! The effects of incidental similarity on compliance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(1), 35–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Christensen, H., Griffiths, K. M., & Farrer, L. (2009). Adherence in internet interventions for anxiety and depression: systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 11(2). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2762797/.
  14. Christensen, H., Griffiths, K. M., & Jorm, A. F. (2004). Delivering interventions for depression by using the internet: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 328(7434), 265.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Christensen, H., Griffiths, K. M., Mackinnon, A. J., & Brittliffe, K. (2006). Online randomized controlled trial of brief and full cognitive behaviour therapy for depression. Psychological Medicine, 36(12), 1737–1746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cialdini, R. B. (2001). Science and practice. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/354a/af309b52b7d18985f7e3728614f04620a72d.pdf.
  17. Cohen, S., Alper, C. M., Doyle, W. J., Treanor, J. J., & Turner, R. B. (2006). Positive emotional style predicts resistance to illness after experimental exposure to rhinovirus or influenza a virus. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68(6), 809–815.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000245867.92364.3c.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. CSO. (2015). Information Society Statistics - Households 2015 - CSO - Central Statistics Office. Retrieved July 19, 2017, from http://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/er/isshh/informationsocietystatisticshouseholds2015/.
  19. CSO. (2016). Census 2016 summary results—Part 2. CSO—Central Statistics Office. Retrieved August 24, 2017, from http://www.cso.ie/en/csolatestnews/presspages/2017/census2016summaryresults-part2/.
  20. CSO. (2017). CSO quicktables: Population (number) by social class and year. Retrieved August 24, 2017, from http://www.cso.ie/multiquicktables/quickTables.aspx?id=cna07.
  21. Cunningham, M. R. (1988a). Does happiness mean friendliness? Induced mood and heterosexual self-disclosure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14(2), 283–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cunningham, M. R. (1988b). What do you do when you’re happy or blue? Mood, expectancies, and behavioral interest. Motivation and Emotion, 12(4), 309–331.Google Scholar
  23. Davis, D., Choe, E., Meyers, J., Wade, N., Varjas, K., Gifford, A., … Worthington, E. L. J. (2016). Thankful for the little things: A meta-analysis of gratitude interventions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(1), 20–31.  https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000107.
  24. Davis, S. W., Cummings, K. M., Rimer, B. K., Sciandra, R., & Stone, J. C. (1992). The impact of tailored self-help smoking cessation guides on young mothers. Health Education Quarterly, 19(4), 495–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Diener, E., & Chan, M. Y. (2011). Happy people live longer: Subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3(1), 1–43.Google Scholar
  26. Doob, A. N., & Gross, A. E. (1968). Status of frustrator as an inhibitor of horn-honking responses. The Journal of Social Psychology, 76(2), 213–218.Google Scholar
  27. Emswiller, T., Deaux, K., & Willits, J. E. (1971). Similarity, sex, and requests for small favors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1(3), 284–291.Google Scholar
  28. Eysenbach, G. (2002). Issues in evaluating health websites in an Internet-based randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 4(3). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1761938/.
  29. Eysenbach, G. (2005). The law of attrition. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 7(1). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1550631/.
  30. Facebook. (2017). Audience insights. Retrieved August 20, 2017, from https://www.facebook.com/ads/audience-insights/people?act=10152293446271830&age=18-&country=IE.
  31. Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7(2), 117–140.  https://doi.org/10.1177/001872675400700202.Google Scholar
  32. Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 47(1), 53.Google Scholar
  33. Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Cognition and Emotion, 19(3), 313–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Frijda, N. H., & Mesquita, B. (1994). The social roles and functions of emotions. Retrieved from https://lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/490930/1/1994TheSocialRolesAndFunctionsOfEmotions.pdf.
  35. Garland, E. L., Fredrickson, B., Kring, A. M., Johnson, D. P., Meyer, P. S., & Penn, D. L. (2010). Upward spirals of positive emotions counter downward spirals of negativity: Insights from the broaden-and-build theory and affective neuroscience on the treatment of emotion dysfunctions and deficits in psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 849–864.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Guy, G. (1989). Language and social class. In F. J. Newmeyer (Ed.), Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey. IV Language: The Sociocultural Context. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., & Pakkanen, T. (2014). Do persuasive technologies persuade?—A review of empirical studies. International conference on persuasive technology (pp. 118–136). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Harker, L., & Keltner, D. (2001). Expressions of positive emotion in women’s college yearbook pictures and their relationship to personality and life outcomes across adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(1), 112–124.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.80.1.112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hawkins, R. P., Kreuter, M., Resnicow, K., Fishbein, M., & Dijkstra, A. (2008). Understanding tailoring in communicating about health. Health Education Research, 23(3), 454–466.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Hayward, M. D., & Gorman, B. K. (2004). The long arm of childhood: The influence of early-life social conditions on men’s mortality. Demography, 41(1), 87–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hofling, C. K., Brotzman, E., Dalrymple, S., Graves, N., & Pierce, C. M. (1966). An experimental study in nurse-physician relationships. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 143(2), 171–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Howell, R. T., Kern, M. L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2007). Health benefits: Meta-analytically determining the impact of well-being on objective health outcomes. Health Psychology Review, 1(1), 83–136.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17437190701492486.Google Scholar
  43. Ilan, J. (2011). Reclaiming respectability? The class-cultural dynamics of crime, community and governance in inner-city Dublin. Urban Studies, 48(6), 1137–1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Isen, A. M. (1987). Positive affect, cognitive processes, and social behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 203–253.Google Scholar
  45. Isen, A. M., Daubman, K. A., & Nowicki, G. P. (1987). Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jay, T. (2009). The utility and ubiquity of taboo words. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(2), 153–161.Google Scholar
  47. Johnson, S. S., Paiva, A. L., Cummins, C. O., Johnson, J. L., Dyment, S. J., Wright, J. A., … Sherman, K. (2008). Transtheoretical model-based multiple behavior intervention for weight management: Effectiveness on a population basis. Preventive Medicine, 46(3), 238–246.Google Scholar
  48. Kelders, S. M., Kok, R. N., Ossebaard, H. C., & Van Gemert-Pijnen, J. E. (2012). Persuasive system design does matter: A systematic review of adherence to web-based interventions. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14(6).Google Scholar
  49. Kreuter, M. W., Lukwago, S. N., Bucholtz, D. C., Clark, E. M., & Sanders-Thompson, V. (2003). Achieving cultural appropriateness in health promotion programs: targeted and tailored approaches. Health Education & Behavior, 30(2), 133–146.Google Scholar
  50. Kreuter, M. W., & Skinner, C. S. (2000). Tailoring: what’s in a name? Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/her/article-abstract/15/1/1/775692.
  51. Kreuter, M. W., Strecher, V. J., & Glassman, B. (1999). One size does not fit all: the case for tailoring print materials. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 21(4), 276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kreuter, M. W., & Wray, R. J. (2003). Tailored and targeted health communication: Strategies for enhancing information relevance. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27(1), S227–S232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Labov, W. (1972a). Language in the inner city: Studies in the Black English vernacular (Vol. 3). University of Pennsylvania Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=snEEdFKLJ5cC&oi=fnd&pg=PR8&dq=LABOV+1972&ots=ALNhvSx8yO&sig=DhJ8dysdEdWowYwSNHPHynrj7ig.
  54. Labov, W. (1972b). Sociolinguistic patterns. University of Pennsylvania Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=hD0PNMu8CfQC&oi=fnd&pg=PR10&dq=labov+1972&ots=1fZ8zdrju1&sig=j0zlvdH6ys9z4iNhFoH9gF2waVo.
  55. Levinson, D. J. (1986). A conception of adult development. American Psychologist, 41(1), 3.Google Scholar
  56. Lyubomirsky, S., Dickerhoof, R., Boehm, J. K., & Sheldon, K. M. (2011). Becoming happier takes both a will and a proper way: An experimental longitudinal intervention to boost well-being. Emotion, 11(2), 391.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005a). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 803–855.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.6.803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005b). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 111–131.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.9.2.111.Google Scholar
  59. Mauss, I. B., Shallcross, A. J., Troy, A. S., John, O. P., Ferrer, E., Wilhelm, F. H., et al. (2011). Don’t hide your happiness! Positive emotion dissociation, social connectedness, and psychological functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(4), 738.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. McAndrew, F. T., & Jeong, H. S. (2012). Who does what on Facebook? Age, sex, and relationship status as predictors of Facebook use. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2359–2365.Google Scholar
  61. McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J.-A. (2002). The grateful disposition: a conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. McEnery, T. (2009). Swearing in English: Bad language, purity and power from 1586 to the Present (1st ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(4), 371.Google Scholar
  64. Mitchell, J., Vella-Brodrick, D., & Klein, B. (2010). Positive psychology and the internet: A mental health opportunity. Sensoria: A Journal of Mind, Brain & Culture, 6(2), 30–41.Google Scholar
  65. Morgan, G. D., Noll, E. L., Orleans, C. T., Rimer, B. K., Amfoh, K., & Bonney, G. (1996). Reaching midlife and older smokers: tailored interventions for routine medical care. Preventive Medicine, 25(3), 346–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Moriarty, S. (1994). Visual communication as a primary system. Journal of Visual Literacy, 14(2), 11–21.Google Scholar
  67. Oenema, A., Brug, J., Dijkstra, A., de Weerdt, I., & de Vries, H. (2008). Efficacy and use of an internet-delivered computer-tailored lifestyle intervention, targeting saturated fat intake, physical activity and smoking cessation: A randomized controlled trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35(2), 125–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Oenema, A., Brug, J., & Lechner, L. (2001). Web-based tailored nutrition education: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Health Education Research, 16(6), 647–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Oinas-Kukkonen, H., & Harjumaa, M. (2008). Towards deeper understanding of persuasion in software and information systems. In 2008 first international conference on Advances in computer-human interaction, (pp. 200–205). IEEE.Google Scholar
  70. Oinas-Kukkonen, H., & Harjumaa, M. (2018a). Persuasive systems design: Key issues, process model and system features. In Routledge handbook of policy design (pp. 105–123). Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Oinas-Kukkonen, H., & Harjumaa, M. (2018b). Persuasive systems design: Key issues, process model and system features. In Routledge handbook of policy design (pp. 105–123). Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. Peters, D. P., & Ceci, S. J. (1982). Peer-review research: Objections and obligations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5(2), 246–255.Google Scholar
  73. Punch, M. (2005). Problem drug use and the political economy of urban restructuring: Heroin, class and governance in Dublin. Antipode, 37(4), 754–774.Google Scholar
  74. Resnicow, K., Baranowski, T., Ahluwalia, J. S., & Braithwaite, R. L. (1999). Cultural sensitivity in public health: Defined and demystified. Ethnicity and Disease, 9(1), 10–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Rimer, B. K., & Glassman, B. (1998). Tailoring communications for primary care settings. Methods of Information in Medicine, 37(2), 171–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Rimer, B. K., & Orleans, C. T. (1994). Tailoring smoking cessation for older adults. Cancer, 74(S7), 2051–2054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Rose, D., Pevalin, D. J., & O’Reilly, K. (2005). The National statistics socio-economic classification: Origins, development and use. Palgrave Macmillan Basingstoke. Retrieved from https://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/classifications/archived-standard-classifications/soc-and-sec-archive/the-national-statistics-socio-economic-classification–origins–development-and-use.pdf.
  78. Sawilowsky, S. S. (2009). New effect size rules of thumb.Google Scholar
  79. Schiffman, C. (1994). Ethnovisual and sociovisual elements of design: visual dialect as a basis for creativity in public service graphic design. Journal of Visual Literacy, 14(2), 23–39.Google Scholar
  80. Schueller, S. M., & Parks, A. C. (2014). The science of self-help: Translating positive psychology research into increased individual happiness. European Psychologist, 19(2), 145–155.  https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000181.Google Scholar
  81. Seligman, M. E. P. (2009). 3 Good Things [Youtube Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOGAp9dw8Ac
  82. Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: NY Free Press.Google Scholar
  83. Seligman, M. E., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sin, N. L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2009). Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(5), 467–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Skinner, C. S., Strecher, V. J., & Hospers, H. (1994). Physicians’ recommendations for mammography: Do tailored messages make a difference? American Journal of Public Health, 84(1), 43–49.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Sohn, M., & Lee, J. (2007). UP Health: Ubiquitously persuasive health promotion with an instant messaging system. In CHI ’07 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2663–2668. https://doi.org/10.1145/1240866.1241059.
  87. Strecher, V. J. (1999). Computer-tailored smoking cessation materials: A review and discussion. Patient Education and Counseling, 36(2), 107–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Strecher, V. J., Shiffman, S., & West, R. (2006). Moderators and mediators of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program among nicotine patch users. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 8(Suppl_1), S95–S101.Google Scholar
  89. Suedfeld, P., Bochner, S., & Matas, C. (1971). Petitioner’s attire and petition signing by peace demonstrators: A field experiment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1(3), 278–283.Google Scholar
  90. van Leer, E., & Connor, N. P. (2012). Use of portable digital media players increases patient motivation and practice in voice therapy. Journal of Voice, 26(4), 447–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Walters, S. T., Wright, J. A., & Shegog, R. (2006). A review of computer and Internet-based interventions for smoking behavior. Addictive Behaviors, 31(2), 264–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Wangberg, S. C., Arsand, E., & Andersson, N. (2006). Diabetes education via mobile text messaging. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 12(1_suppl), 55–56.Google Scholar
  93. Wangberg, S. C., Bergmo, T. S., & Johnsen, J.-A. K. (2008). Adherence in Internet-based interventions. Patient Preference and Adherence, 2, 57.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Wood, A. M., Froh, J. J., & Geraghty, A. W. (2010). Gratitude and well-being: A review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 890–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Wood, A. M., Joseph, S., & Maltby, J. (2009). Gratitude predicts psychological well-being above the big five facets. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(4), 443–447.Google Scholar
  96. Wood, A. M., Maltby, J., Stewart, N., Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (2008). A social-cognitive model of trait and state levels of gratitude. Emotion, 8(2), 281.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University College CorkCorkIreland

Personalised recommendations