Role of mTORC1 and mTORC2 in Breast Cancer: Therapeutic Targeting of mTOR and Its Partners to Overcome Metastasis and Drug Resistance

  • Ghazala ButtEmail author
  • Durray Shahwar
  • Muhammad Zahid Qureshi
  • Rukset Attar
  • Misbah Akram
  • Yelda Birinci
  • Gokce Seker Karatoprak
  • Maria Luisa Gasparri
  • Ammad Ahmad Farooqi
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1152)


Based on the insights gleaned from decades of research, it seems clear that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an essential signaling node that integrates environmental clues for regulation of cell survival, metabolism and proliferation of the cells. However, overwhelmingly increasing scientific evidence has added a new layer of intricacy to already complicated and versatile signaling pathway of mTOR. Deregulation of spatio-temporally controlled mTOR-driven pathway played contributory role in breast cancer development and progression. Pharmacologists and molecular biologists have specifically emphasized on the identification and development of mTOR-pathway inhibitors. In this chapter we have attempted to provide an overview of the most recent findings related to therapeutic targeting of mTOR-associated mTORC1 and mTORC2 in breast cancer. We have also comprehensively summarized regulation of mTOR and its partners by microRNAs in breast cancer.


mTOR Signaling Therapy Apoptosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ghazala Butt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Durray Shahwar
    • 2
  • Muhammad Zahid Qureshi
    • 3
  • Rukset Attar
    • 4
  • Misbah Akram
    • 5
  • Yelda Birinci
    • 6
  • Gokce Seker Karatoprak
    • 7
  • Maria Luisa Gasparri
    • 8
    • 9
    • 10
  • Ammad Ahmad Farooqi
    • 11
  1. 1.Department of BotanyGCULahorePakistan
  2. 2.Lahore College for Women UniversityLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryGCULahorePakistan
  4. 4.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of MedicineYeditepe UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  5. 5.Department of Bioinformatics and BiotechnologyInternational Islamic UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  6. 6.Faculty of Engineering and Natural SciencesSabanci UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  7. 7.Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of PharmacyErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  8. 8.Department of Gynecology and ObstetricsUniversity Hospital of Bern and University of BernBernSwitzerland
  9. 9.Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics“Sapienza” University of RomeRomeItaly
  10. 10.Surgical and Medical Department of Translational Medicine“Sapienza” University of RomeRomeItaly
  11. 11.Laboratory for Translational Oncology and Personalized MedicineRLMCLahorePakistan

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