General Conclusion: Limited Evidence that Policies Normalize SRB
This chapter offers general conclusions. Public policies had limited efficacy in reducing SRB in the three countries of investigation. In the only case, where we could detect positive policy impact on SRB, the intervention was largely non-replicable due to irreproducible conditions and negative side effects (e.g. India). We also show that the same policy instruments are transferred transnationally with the help of international organizations and a research community that has been reproducing the same policy prescriptions for over two decades. The South Korean case stands out because it has been frequently promoted and used to inform diverse transnational policy agendas, while neglecting the limited efficacy and anti-abortion agenda of the Korean model. These findings have important implications for international organizations in terms of recognizing the different stages, policy intentions and constraints of the target countries, and learning from policy failure. For the research community, close monitoring of SRB trends, medical markets and policy changes seem necessary given the fact that sex selection is likely to continue. Future impact assessments should explore the impact of female education, education policies, social welfare and inheritance policies on sex imbalances and son preference. Lastly, we revisit 3-M-Model as a valuable contribution to better understand and address global public health issues in the twenty-first century.
KeywordsPolicy efficacy Sex selection Skewed sex ratio at birth Global agenda Asia
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