Advertisement

Vietnam

  • Laura Rahm
Chapter
Part of the Demographic Transformation and Socio-Economic Development book series (DTSD, volume 11)

Abstract

This chapter covers the Vietnamese case study. Son preference endured from the Confucian past to the Communist present. With access to reproductive technologies emerging after the Doi Moi reformation and a two-child population policy in place, sex-selective abortions gained increased popularity. Subsequently, a distinct rise in birth masculinization at national and regional levels can be observed. Vietnam responded promptly to the situation by outlawing sex selection in 2003 with the Population Ordinance. However, the timeliness of the policy roll out suggests that the Ordinance triggered the onset of sex imbalances in Vietnam pointing to a perverse policy effect. Efforts to address sex selection have been continuously stepped up through various legal and policy changes, awareness-raising campaigns and advocacy. With the help of UNFPA, a specific intervention was rolled out in Hai Doung Province to tackle sex selection and measure policy efficacy. Changes in knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) and a slight reduction in SRB in the intervention area could suggest policy efficacy if these results weren’t overshadowed by methodological shortcomings. Sex selection and son preference persist in Hai Duong and Vietnam at large. It remains to be seen whether a policy focused on awareness raising or tackling the motives of sex selection can outweigh strong medial interests to continue the practice.

Keywords

Son preference Sex selection Public policies Policy impact Vietnam 

References

  1. Banister, J. (1985). The population of Vietnam. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce and Bureau of the Census.Google Scholar
  2. Barbiéri, M., & Bélanger, D. (Eds.). (2009). Reconfiguring families in contemporary Vietnam. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Becquet, V. (2015). Des inégalités de genre à la sélection sexuelle prénatale : la masculinité des naissances au Viêt Nam (Thèse de Doctorat de Démographie). Université Paris Descartes, Paris.Google Scholar
  4. Becquet, V., & Guilmoto, C. Z. (2018). Recent sex ratio at birth trends in Vietnam. Population, 73(3), 543–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bélanger, D., Nguyen, T. N. L., & Nguyen, T. T. O. (2012). Closing the gender gap in Vietnam: An analysis based on the Vietnam censuses 1989, 1999, and 2009 (Research Report) (p. 40). Quebec City: ODSEF.Google Scholar
  6. Belanger, D., Oanh, K. T. H., Jianye, L., Thuy, L. T., & Thanh, P. V. (2003). Are sex ratios at birth increasing in Vietnam? Population (English Edition, 2002), 58(2), 231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bondurant, A., Henderson, S., & Nguyen, C. Q. (2003). Addressing the reproductive health needs and rights of young people since ICPD: The contribution of UNFPA and IPPF (Vietnam Country Evaluation Report). Hanoi: BMZ, DFID, UNFPA, IPPF. Retrieved April 7, 2018, from http://www.oecd.org/countries/vietnam/36804970.pdf
  8. DEPOCEN. (2016). End-line study on situation of domestic violence and sex ratio at birth in Hai Duong and Ben Tre provinces (Endline Survey No. RFP#UNFPA/VNM/16/01) (p. 80). Hanoi: UNFPA-Depocen.Google Scholar
  9. Duong, D. T. T. (2015). Sex ratio at birth and the ideal family in Chi Linh District, Vietnam. Vietnam Journal of Public Health, 3(2), 29–38.Google Scholar
  10. EPOS Health Management. (2016, May 23). Vietnam: EU ambassador visits hospitals. Retrieved July 18, 2017, from http://www.epos.de/news/current-news/vietnam-eu-ambassador-visits-hospitals
  11. EU Health Facility. (2017, July 11). Workshop on sex ratio at birth (SRB) imbalance control in Quang Nam. Retrieved July 18, 2017, from http://www.euhf.vn/activities/on-going-activities/heath-service/workshop-on-sex-ratio-at-birth-srb-imbalance-control-in-quang-nam
  12. FAO. (2018). Gender and land rights database. Vietnam. Retrieved March 1, 2018, from http://www.fao.org/gender-landrights-database/country-profiles/countries-list/national-legal-framework/en/?country_iso3=VNM
  13. Gammeltoft, T. (1999). Women’s bodies, women’s worries: Health and family planning in a Vietnamese rural community. Surrey, Canada: Curzon Press.Google Scholar
  14. Gammeltoft, T. (2007). Prenatal diagnosis in postwar Vietnam: Power, subjectivity, and citizenship. American Anthropologist, 109(1), 153–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gammeltoft, T. (2014). Haunting images: A cultural account of selective reproduction in Vietnam (1st ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gammeltoft, T., & Nguyen, H. T. T. (2007). The commodification of obstetric ultrasound scanning in Hanoi, Viet Nam. Reproductive Health Matters, 15(29), 163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goodkind, D. (1994). Abortion in Vietnam: Measurements, puzzles, and concerns. Studies in Family Planning, 25(6), 342.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2137878 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Government of Vietnam. (2002) Government Decree 10/2002/ND-CP on financial autonomy of revenue-generating public service entities.Google Scholar
  19. GSO. (2003). Vietnam demographic and health survey 2002. Hanoi, Vietnam: GSO & ORC Macro.Google Scholar
  20. GSO. (2016a). Sex imbalances at birth in Viet Nam: Recent trends factors and variations. Hanoi, Vietnam: General Statistics Office & UNFPA.Google Scholar
  21. GSO. (2016b). The 1/4/2015 time-point population change and family planning survey. Hanoi, Vietnam: General Statistics Office.Google Scholar
  22. Guilmoto, C. Z. (2012a). Final report. Mission to Viet Nam 20–24 August and 31 October-7 November 2012 (p. 25). Paris: Ceped.Google Scholar
  23. Guilmoto, C. Z. (2012b). Son preference, sex selection, and kinship in Vietnam. Population and Development Review, 38(1), 31–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Guilmoto, C. Z. (2012c). Son preference, sex selection, and kinship in Vietnam. Population and Development Review, 38(1), 31–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guilmoto, C. Z., Dudwick, N., Gjonça, A., & Rahm, L. (2018). How do demographic trends change? The onset of birth masculinization in Albania, Georgia, and Vietnam 1990–2005. Population and Development Review, 44(1), 37–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Guilmoto, C. Z., Hoàng, X., & Ngo Van, T. (2009). Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam. PLoS One, 4(2), e4624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hai Duong News. (2016, January 15). Buddhist families join in remedying gender imbalance at birth. Retrieved July 21, 2017, from https://www.vietnambreakingnews.com/2016/01/buddhist-families-join-in-remedying-gender-imbalance-at-birth/
  28. Haines, D. W. (1984). Reflections of kinship and society under Vietnam’s Lê Dynasty. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 15(02), 307–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harvard School of Public Health. (2008). Viet Nam Law on the protection of public health, 30 June 1989. Retrieved May 5, 2017, from https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/population/abortion/VIETNAM.abo.htm
  30. Henshaw, S. K., Singh, S., & Haas, T. (1999). The incidence of abortion worldwide. International Family Planning Perspectives and Digest, 25, S30–S38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoang, T. T. D., Phan, T., & Huynh, T. N. (2008). Second trimester abortion in Viet Nam: Changing to recommended methods and improving service delivery. Reproductive Health Matters, 16(31), 145–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ling, L. H. M. (1999). Sex machine: Global hypermasculinity and images of the Asian woman in modernity. Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique, 7(2), 277–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. London, J. D. (2013). The promises and perils of hospital autonomy. Social Science & Medicine, 96, 232–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mahoney, J. (2000). Path dependence in historical sociology. Theory and Society, 29(4), 507–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mekong Economics Ltd. (2013). 2012 Baseline study on sex ratio at birth in Hai Duong Province (p. 110). Hai Duong. Retrieved August 16, 2015, from http://www.mekongeconomics.com/dev/images/stories/pds/J0886.pdf
  36. Merry, S. E. (2006). Human rights and gender violence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  37. Nacken, R. (2014, September). Speech by Ms. Ritsu Nacken, UNFPA deputy representative in Viet Nam. Speech, Hanoi. Retrieved March 3, 2018, from http://hoinguoicaotuoi.vn/files/resource/2292014/229201491653B%C3%A0i%20ph%C3%A1t%20bi%E1%BB%83u%20t%E1%BA%A1i%20Di%E1%BB%85n%20%C4%91%C3%A0n%20c%E1%BB%A7a%20UNFPA%20(ti%E1%BA%BFng%20Anh).doc
  38. National Assembly of Vietnam. (2006). The Law on Gender Equality, Pub. L. No. No.73/2006/QH11, 24 (2006). Retrieved March 1, 2018, from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/934/Law%20on%20Gender%20Equality%202006.pdf
  39. National Assembly of Vietnam. (2017, July 22). Luật Dân số. Retrieved July 22, 2017, from http://duthaoonline.quochoi.vn/DuThao/Lists/DT_DUTHAO_LUAT/View_Detail.aspx?ItemID=545&TabIndex=0
  40. Newman, P. (Ed.). (2002). The new Palgrave dictionary of economics and the law (Vol. 1). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. Nguyen, N. H. (1998). The Confucian incursion into Vietnam. In W. H. Slote & G. A. De Vos (Eds.), Confucianism and the family (pp. 91–104). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  42. Pham, B. N., Hall, W., Hill, P., & Rao, C. (2008). Analysis of socio-political and health practices influencing sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam. Reproductive Health Matters, 16(32), 176–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pham, B. N., Hill, P. S., Hall, W., & Rao, C. (2013). The evolution of population policy in Viet Nam. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 27(2), 61–75.Google Scholar
  44. Rydström, H. (1998). Embodying morality : Girls’ socialization in a north Vietnamese commune (Doctoral thesis). Linköping University, Linköping.Google Scholar
  45. Santillán, D., Schuler, S., Anh, H. T., Minh, T. H., & Mai, B. T. T. (2002). Limited equality: Contradictory ideas about gender and the implications for reproductive health in rural Vietnam. Journal of Health Management, 4(2), 251–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Slote, W. H., & De Vos, G. A. (Eds.). (1998). Confucianism and the family. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  47. Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 2003 Population Ordiance (No. 06/2003/PL-UBTVQH11) (2003). Retrieved March 1, 2018, from http://www.moj.gov.vn/vbpq/lists/vn%20bn%20php%20lut/view_detail.aspx?itemid=21001#
  48. Tran, H. (2011). Global debate, local dilemmas: Sex-selective abortion in contemporary Vietnam (PhD dissertation). Australian National University.Google Scholar
  49. UN. (2007, January 17). New law on gender equality will greatly improve Viet Nam’s legal regime for women’s advancement, Anti-Dicrimination Committee told. Retrieved July 21, 2017, from https://www.un.org/press/en/2007/wom1593.doc.htm
  50. UNDESA. (2015). World population prospects: The 2015 Revision (No. ESA/P/WP.241). Retrieved July 29, 2015, from http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files/Key_Findings_WPP_2015.pdf
  51. UNFPA Viet Nam. (2009). Recent change in the sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam (p. 59). Hanoi. Retrieved August 16, 2015, from http://vietnam.unfpa.org/public/pid/5236
  52. UNFPA Vietnam. (2011). Son preference in Viet Nam: Ancient desires, advancing technologies (p. 60). Hanoi, Vietnam: UNFPA.Google Scholar
  53. UNFPA Vietnam. (2014a). The imbalanced sex ratio at birth in Vietnam: Connecting research and policy for change. Retrieved August 16, 2015, from http://vietnam.unfpa.org/webdav/site/vietnam/shared/Publications%202011/Policy%20brief_ENG.pdf
  54. UNFPA Vietnam. (2014b). Towards a modern Viet Nam where a preference for sons is a thing of the past. Retrieved March 26, 2018, from http://vietnam.unfpa.org/en/news/towards-modern-viet-nam-where-preference-sons-thing-past?page=4
  55. Wolf, M., Phan Bich, T., Hyman, A., & Huber, A. (2010). Abortion in Vietnam: History, culture and politics collide in the era of Doi Moi. In A. Whittaker (Ed.), Abortion in Asia: Local Dilemmas, global politics (NED-New edition, 1, pp. 149–174). Berghahn Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Rahm
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Population and DevelopmentParisFrance

Personalised recommendations