Parliamentary and Presidential Elections

  • Peter Emerson


For some inexplicable reason, while thinking that most decision-making should be based on a choice of just two options, many democrats digress from this notion and insist that elections must involve not just two but lots of candidates. In which case, of course, there are lots of ways of voting and lots of ways of counting the electorate’s preferences. Nearly every country discussed in this book has, if not a different electoral theme, then at least a variation; (but they nearly all believe in and use only binary voting in decision-making—all very odd). The differences of these various electoral systems and their effects can be significant; yet almost without exception, all of these systems are regarded as democratic. This Chapter describes the said countries’ electoral systems; compares their many effects and defects, the biggest of the former is the subsequent party structure; and then suggests a voting methodology which is both more inclusive and more accurate.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Emerson
    • 1
  1. 1.The de Borda InstituteBelfastUK

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