Kinematic Modelling of Plugs and Sockets: Assembling, Mobility and Redundant Constraints

  • Vinícius N. ArtmannEmail author
  • Luan Meneghini
  • Rodrigo L. P. Barreto
  • Daniel Martins
Conference paper
Part of the Mechanisms and Machine Science book series (Mechan. Machine Science, volume 73)


There are different types of plugs and sockets currently in use around the world. Usually the design considers electric features while neglecting a mechanical approach. Plugs with misalignment or sockets with excessive clearance are common issues which in turn may bring hazards. These issues may reduce the safety of the user or of the device being energized. Based in these discussions, a new methodology was developed to evaluate plugs and sockets using Davies’ method to evaluate assembling, mobility and redundant constraints, then it was applied to the types A and C of plugs and sockets, from the IEC classification. A review of kinematic pairs and the combinations of these pairs are shown and applied to plugs and sockets. Along with the methodology developed, the results show that exists a large number of redundant constraints in the coupling system as well as dangerous mobilities.


electrical plugs and sockets kinematic analysis Davies’ Method 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vinícius N. Artmann
    • 1
    Email author
  • Luan Meneghini
    • 1
  • Rodrigo L. P. Barreto
    • 1
  • Daniel Martins
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSCFlorianópolisBrazil

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