Improvements on Design and Validation of Automotive Steel Wheels

  • E. BonisoliEmail author
  • C. Rosso
  • S. Venturini
  • D. Rovarino
  • M. Velardocchia
Conference paper
Part of the Mechanisms and Machine Science book series (Mechan. Machine Science, volume 73)


In this paper, enrichments of automotive steel wheels design procedure are presented. The principal results are obtained using consolidated techniques as modal analysis and statistical approaches to estimate useful, but difficult to directly measure, system quantities. The methodology is applied to predict the local stiffening effect between the rim and the disk induced by the residual stress variation during the fitting procedure. The stiffening effect is related to components and assembly characteristics, such as masses, natural frequencies, generalised tolerances and uncertainties of elasto-plastic material properties and manufacturing process parameters. Components to assembly experimental modal analysis direct correlation is performed to identify the representative modes of the phenomena, while polynomial chaos expansion-based meta models developed upon experimental observations allow to extend the obtained results to component and assembly characteristics. A further improvement is analysed to extend the methodology to wheel-to-tyre interactions during fatigue tests allowing the indirect structure global stress estimation.


automotive wheel experimental modal analysis meta-models stiffening effect 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors thank G. Perris Magnetto, G. Gotta, R. Majocchi, C. Torrelli of MW Italia for the technical advice, suggestions and supporting the research in this study. Special thanks go to all of those have contributed to the achieved results of this project.


  1. 1.
    Leister, G.: Passenger car tires and wheels. Development – manufacturing – application. Springer-Verlag, Wiesbaden. ISBN 978-3-319-50117-8 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grubisic, V., Fischer, G.: Procedure for optimal lightweight design and durability testing of wheels. International Journal of Vehicle Design 5(6), 659–671 (1984).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Demiyanushko, I., Vakhromeev, A., Loginov, E., Mironova, V.: The dynamic behavior of the vehicle wheels under impact loads - FEM and experimental researches. In: Dynamical Systems in Theoretical Perspective, DSTA 2017, Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics, vol. 248, pp. 125–134, Springer, Cham (2018).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    da Silva, L.F.M., Pirondi, A., Öchsner, A.: Hybrid adhesive joints. Springer-Verlag, Berlin (2011).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gallio, G., Lombardi, M., Rovarino, D., Fino, P., Montanaro, L.: Influence of the mechanical behaviour of different adhesives on an interference-fit cylindrical joint. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 47, 63–68 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Firat, M., Kozan, R., Ozsoy, M., Mete, O.M.: Numerical modeling and simulation of wheel radial fatigue tests. Engineering Failure Analysis 16(5), 1533–1541 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cafeo, J.A., Doggett, S.J., Feldmaier, D.A., Lust, R.V., Nefske, D.J., Shung, H.S.: A design-of-experiments approach to quantifying test-to-test variability for a modal test. In: Proceedings of IMAC XV, pp. 598–604. SEM, Orlando (1997).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hasselman, T., Chrostowski, J.D.: Effects of product and experimental variability on model verification of automobile structures. Proceedings of IMAC XV, pp. 612–620. SEM, Orlando (1997).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kompella, R.S., Bernhard, R.J.: Variation of structural-acoustic characteristics of automotive vehicles. Noise Control Engineering Journal 44(2), 93–99 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lieven, N.A.J., Greening, P.: Effect of experimental pre-stress and residual stress on modal behaviour. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 359(1778), 97–111 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lanoue, F., Vadean, A., Sanschargrin, B.: Finite element analysis and contact modelling considerations of interference fits. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 17(10), 1587–1602 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang, G.M., Coquille, J.C., Fontaine, J.F., Lambertin, M.: Influence of roughness on characteristics of tight interference fit of a shaft and a hub. International Journal of Solids and Structures 38(42), 7691–7701 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Forrester, A.I.J., Sobester, A., Keane, A.: Engineering design via surrogate modelling. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2008).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang, Y., McClain, B., Fang, X.D.: Design of interference fits via finite element method. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 42(9), 1835–1850 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marcuccio, G., Mottershead, J.E., Bonisoli, E., Tornincasa, S., Patelli, E.: Geometrical and dimensional uncertainties effects quantification for stress/strain field characterization. In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, vol. 33, pp. 1099–1104. AIDIC, Milan (2013).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marcuccio, G., Bonisoli, E., Tornincasa, S., Mottershead, J.E., Patelli, E., Wang, W.: Image decomposition and uncertainty quantification for the assessment of manufacturing tolerances in stress analysis. The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design 49(8), 618–631 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bonisoli, E., Delprete, C., Rosso, C.: Proposal of a modal-geometrical-based master nodes selection criterion in modal analysis. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 23(3), 606–620 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bonisoli, E., Brino, M., Scapolan, M., Lisitano, D.: Stochastic modelling and experimental outcomes of modal analysis on automotive wheels. International Journal of Mechanics and Control 16(2), 17–23 (2015).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ghanem, R., Spanos, G.: Stochastic finite elements – A spectral approach. Springer- Verlag, Berlin (2003).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bonisoli, E., Marcuccio, G., Tornincasa, S.: Vibration-based stress stiffening effect detection on automotive wheels through PCE meta-model. Submitted to Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 153–161 (2013).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bonisoli, E., Marcuccio, G., Tornincasa, S.: Detection of stress-stiffening effect on automotive components. In: Model Validation and Uncertainty Quantification, vol. 3, pp. 335–343. Springer, Cham (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tornincasa, S., Bonisoli, E., Brino, M.: Tolerances and uncertainties effects on interference fit of automotive steel wheels. Advances on Mechanics. Design Engineering and Manufacturing, pp. 665–674. Springer, Cham (2016).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang, X., Zhang, X.: Simulation of dynamic cornering fatigue test of a steel passenger car wheel. International Journal of Fatigue 32(2), 434–442 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Bonisoli
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. Rosso
    • 1
  • S. Venturini
    • 1
  • D. Rovarino
    • 2
  • M. Velardocchia
    • 1
  1. 1.Politecnico di TorinoTorinoItaly
  2. 2.MW ItaliaRivoli (TO)Italy

Personalised recommendations