History of the Bernoulli Principle
Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), son of Johann Bernoulli (1667-1748), spent seven or eight years as a professor of mathematics in St. Petersburg. He started writing Hydrodynamics in 1729 during his period in Russia and an un-completed manuscript was left at St. Petersburg when he returned to Basel four years later. When the book was finally published in Germany in 1738, he re-quested that the Russian manuscript be destroyed, but it is still preserved in the files of the Soviet Academy of Science. After the publication of Hydrodynamics, he began to compete strongly with his father, due the almost simultaneous publication of Hydraulics by the latter in 1743 and the Traité de l´équilibre et du movement des fluids by Jean le Rond d´Alembert (1717-1783) in 1744. Following the publication of both fluid mechanics treatises in the middle of the eighteenth century, mathematicians and physicians gave the name hydrodynamics to the science of internal and external fluid motion in general and adopted the name hydraulics for the applied sciences related to the water motion. In other words, hydraulics was concerned with practical applications and hydrodynamics with the theoretical aspects of the same science. In the Preface of Hydraulics, J. Bernoulli postulated that this science had not been subjected to the laws of Mechanics, being its developments were based on experience and theories that were uncertain and lacked a sufficient foundation. For him, the basis of hydraulics had to be found in Newtonian principles.
KeywordsHistory of Mechanics History of Physical Principles History of Engineering
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