Advertisement

Overview of the Everglades

  • Thomas E. Lodge
Chapter

Abstract

The Everglades is a freshwater wetland located in southern Florida. It originated 5500 years ago when rising waters of Lake Okeechobee and its vicinity fostered deposition of wetland soils through former uplands with widely exposed bedrock. Its development occurred in the presence of, and under the influence of Native Americans, their occupation having predated the Everglades by thousands of years. Prior to regional drainage, which began in the 1880s, the Everglades covered about 4000 square miles. It sloped southward at about 2.5 inches per mile from Lake Okeechobee to coastal tidal waters at the south end of Florida’s mainland. Just over half of the Everglades remains today, mostly broken into water-conservation impoundments controlled by levees and canals with only Everglades National Park at the south end still free-flowing. Pristine areas of the Everglades are oligotrophic, consisting mostly of marshes rich in periphyton. The marshes and periphyton are rapidly degraded by phosphorus enrichment over the maximum background of 10 ppb. Other enrichment of concern is sulfur and its association with elevated methylmercury, the latter biomagnified in Everglades fauna. Everglades marsh landscapes include long-hydroperiod sloughs (flooded 11+ months annually) and intermediate-hydroperiod sawgrass ridges (flooded 9–10 months), both underlain by peat soils, and smaller areas of short-hydroperiod, mixed-herb marshes (mostly flooded 3–7 months) underlain by marl. The latter occur around the edges of the southern Everglades. Unevenly distributed through these marshes are tree islands of several kinds based on their genesis and flora. One type was frequented through history by Native Americans, which influenced island development. Recent work has demonstrated the role of water flow in the evolution and maintenance of marsh and tree-island landscape features, all aligned with the pre-drainage direction of flow. Other Everglades features include small ponds called alligator holes that have various origins but are maintained by alligators and are ecologically important. Surrounding the Everglades are other plant communities, principally forests, and most outflows of water from the Everglades pass through extensive and highly productive tidal mangrove swamp forests before entering shallow marine waters at the south end of the system. Everglades wildlife responds to summer wet-season and winter-spring dry-season cycling, which characterizes southern Florida’s nearly tropical climate. Many introduced plants and animals have stressed the natural Everglades ecosystem, which supports 68 threatened and endangered species. Restoration efforts are in progress. Phosphorus reduction, initiated in the mid-1990s, has been successful but short of compliance targets. Overall ecosystem restoration is ongoing but slow. In combination with phosphorus reduction, it involves revision of South Florida’s water-control system to ensure the right quality, timing, and distribution of water.

Keywords

Everglades Lake Okeechobee Wetland Marsh Tree Island Native American Hydroperiod Phosphorus Flow Peat Marl Restoration 

References

  1. Abrahamson WG, Hartnett DC (1990) Pine flatwoods and dry prairies. In: Myers RL, Ewel JJ (eds) Ecosystems of Florida. University of Central Florida Press, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander TR (1971) Sawgrass biology related to the future of the Everglades ecosystem. Soil Crop Sci Soc Florida Proc 31:72–74Google Scholar
  3. Ardren T, Lowry JP, Memory M, Flanagan K, Busot A (2016) Prehistoric human impact on tree island lifecycles in the Florida Everglades. The Holocene 26(5):772–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armentano TV, Jones DT, Ross MS, Gamble BW (2002) Vegetation pattern and process in tree islands of the southern Everglades and adjacent areas. In: Sklar FH, van der Valk A (eds) Tree islands of the Everglades. Kluwer Academic Publishers, BostonGoogle Scholar
  5. Beard DB (1938) Wildlife reconnaissance, Everglades National Park project. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Brandt LA, Black DW (2001) Impacts of the introduced fern, Lygodium microphyllum, on the native vegetation of tree islands in the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. Fla Sci 64(3):191–196Google Scholar
  7. Brandt LA, Silveira JE, Kitchens WM (2002) Tree islands of the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. In: Sklar FH, van der Valk A (eds) Tree islands of the Everglades. Kluwer Academic Publishers, BostonGoogle Scholar
  8. Brosnan D (project lead) (2007) Everglades multi-species avian ecology and restoration review: final report. Sustainable Ecosystems Institute, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  9. Browder JA, Gleason PJ, Swift DR (1994) Periphyton in the Everglades: spatial variation, environmental correlates, and ecological implications. In: Davis SM, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucie Press, Delray BeachGoogle Scholar
  10. Carr RS (2002) The archaeology of Everglades tree slands. In: Sklar FH, van der Valk A (eds) Tree islands of the Everglades. Kluwer Academic Publishers, BostonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cook MI (ed) (2016) South Florida wading bird report, vol 21. South Florida Water Management District, Everglades Systems Assessment, W. Palm Beach. This publication is part of a series of annual reportsGoogle Scholar
  12. Craighead FC Sr (1971) The natural environments and their succession, The Trees of Southern Florida, vol 1. University of Miami Press, Coral GablesGoogle Scholar
  13. Davis JH Jr (1940) The ecology and geologic role of mangroves in Florida. Carnegie Institution, publication no. 517, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  14. Davis JH Jr (1943) The natural features of southern Florida, especially the vegetation, and the Everglades. The Florida Geological Survey, Geological bulletin no. 25, TallahasseeGoogle Scholar
  15. Davis SM, Ogden JC (eds) (1994) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucie Press, Delray BeachGoogle Scholar
  16. DeAngelis DL, Loftus WF, Trexler JC, Ulanowicz RE (1997) Modeling fish dynamics and effects of stress in a hydrologically pulsed ecosystem. J Aquat Ecosyst Stress Recover 6:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dorcas ME, Willson JD, Reed RN, Snow RW, Rochford MR, Miller MA, Meshaka WE Jr, Andreadis PT, Mazzotti FJ, Romagosa CM, Hart KM (2012) Severe mammal declined coincide with proliferation of invasive Burmese python in Everglades National Park. PNAS 108(7):2418–2422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Douglas MS (1947) The Everglades: river of grass. Rinehart, New York. (60th anniversary ed. with “Afterword” by M. Grunwald, 2007, 2010. Pineapple Press, Inc., Sarasota)Google Scholar
  19. Dove CJ, Snow RW, Rochford MR, Mazzotti FJ (2011) Birds consumed by the invasive Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) in Everglades National Park, Florida, SA. Wilson J Ornithol 123(1):126–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dreschel TW, Hohner SM, Aich S, McVoy CW (2018) Peat soils of the Everglades of Florida, USA. In: Topcuoğlu B, Turan M (eds) Peat. ISBN 978-953-51-5805-9, In-pressGoogle Scholar
  21. Duever MJ, Carlson JE, Meeder JF, Duever LC, Gunderson LH, Riopelle LA, Alexander TR, Myers RL, Spangler DP (1986) The big cypress national preserve. National audubon society research report no. 8. National Audubon Society, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Duever MJ, Meeder JF, Meeder LC, McCollom JM (1994) The climate of South Florida and its role in shaping the Everglades ecosystem. In: Davis SM, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucie Press, Delray BeachGoogle Scholar
  23. Egler FE (1952) Southeast saline Everglades vegetation in Florida, and its management. Veg Acta Bot III(Fasc. 4-5):213–265Google Scholar
  24. Ewel KC (1990) Swamps. In: Myers RL, Ewel JJ (eds) Ecosystems of Florida. University of Central Florida Press, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  25. Fairchild D (1945) Are the Everglades worth saving? National Parks Magazine, Jan.-Mar. 1945 (reprinted from an address by Dr. Fairchild at the 1929 annual meeting of the American Forestry Association)Google Scholar
  26. Fernald EA, Purdum ED (1998) Water resources Atlas of Florida. Institute of Science and Public Affairs, and Florida State University, TallahasseeGoogle Scholar
  27. Fletcher R, Robertson E, Reichert B, Cattau C, Wilcox CR, Zweig C, Jeffery B, Olbert J, Pias K, Kitchens W (2015) Snail kite demography 5-year report, prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Branch, Jacksonville, FL. by U.S. Geological Survey, FL Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  28. State of Florida (1845) A plat exhibiting the state of the Surveys in the State of Florida with references. Surveyor General’s Office, St. AugustineGoogle Scholar
  29. Frederick PC, Ogden JC (2001) Pulsed breeding of long-legged wading birds and the importance of infrequent severe drought conditions in the Florida Everglades. Wetlands 21(4):484–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gaiser E (2009) Periphyton as an indicator of restoration in the Florida Everglades. Ecol Indic 9S:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gaiser EE, Trexler JC, Richards JH, Childers DL, Lee D, Edwards AL, Scinto LJ, Jayachandran K, Noe GB, Jones RD (2005) Cascading ecological effects of low-level phosphorus enrichment in the Florida Everglades. J Environ Qual 34:717–723PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Gawlik DE, Gronemeyer P, Powell RA (2002) Habitat-use patterns of avian seed dispersers in the central Everglades. In: Sklar FH, van der Valk A (eds) Tree islands of the Everglades. Kluwer Academic Publishers, BostonGoogle Scholar
  33. Glaser PH, Hansen BCS, Donovan JJ, Givnish TJ, Strickler CA, Volin UC (2013) Holocene dynamics of the Florida Everglades with respect to climate, dustfall, and tropical storms. PNAS 110(43):17211–17216PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Gleason PJ, Brooks HK, Cohen AD, Goodrick R, Smith WG, Spackman W, Stone P (1984) The environmental significance of Holocene sediments from the Everglades and saline tidal plain. In: Gleason PJ (ed) Environments of South Florida: present and past II. Miami Geological Society, MiamiGoogle Scholar
  35. Gleason PJ, Stone P (1994) Age, origin, and landscape evolution of the Everglades peatland. In: Davis SM, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucie Press, Delray BeachGoogle Scholar
  36. Godfrey MC, Catton T (2011) River of interests: water management in South Florida and the Everglades, 1948–2010. Historical Research Associates, Inc., under contract to the USACE (for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC)Google Scholar
  37. Goodrick RL (1984) The wet prairies of the northern Everglades. In: Gleason PJ (ed) Environments of South Florida: present and past II. Miami Geological Society, Miami. (also in 1974 edition)Google Scholar
  38. Graf MT, Schwadron M, Stone PA, Ross M, Chmura GL (2008) An enigmatic carbonate layer in Everglades tree island peats. Eos 89(12):117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Grunwald M (2006) The swamp: the Everglades, Florida, and the politics of paradise. Simon & Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Gunderson LH (1994) Vegetation of the Everglades: determinants of community composition. In: Davis SM, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucie Press, Delray BeachGoogle Scholar
  41. Harshberger JW (1913) Phytogeographic map of South Florida. Hand drawn, 24 × 26 inches, 1:500,000. Wagner Free Institute of Science, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  42. Harvey JW, Wetzel PR, Lodge TE, Engle VC, Ross MS (2017) Role of a naturally varying flow regime in Everglades vegetation. Restor Ecol 25:S27–S38.  https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.12558 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Heisler LD, Towles T, Brandt LA, Pace RT (2002) Tree island vegetation and water management in the central Everglades. In: Sklar FH, van der Valk A (eds) Tree islands of the Everglades. Kluwer Academic Publishers, BostonGoogle Scholar
  44. Henry JA, Portier KM, Coyne J (1994) The climate and weather of Florida. Pineapple Press, Inc., SarasotaGoogle Scholar
  45. Hogarth PJ (2015) The biology of mangroves and seagrasses, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ives LJC (1856) Military map of the Peninsula of Florida South of Tampa Bay. U.S. War Department, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  47. Kirby RR, Hobbs CH, Mehta AJ (1989) Fine sediment regime of Lake Okeechobee, Florida. A study funded by the SFWMD as part of a Lake Okeechobee phosphorus dynamics study. Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Department, University of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  48. Larsen LG, Harvey JW (2010) How vegetation and sediment transport feedbacks drive landscape change in the Everglades and wetlands worldwide. Am Nat 176(3):E66–E79PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Larsen LG, Harvey JW (2011) Modeling of hydroecological feedbacks predicts distinct classes of landscape pattern, process, and restoration potential in shallow aquatic systems. Geomorphology 126:279–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Light SS, Dineen JW (1994) Water control in the Everglades: a historical perspective. In: Davis SM, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucie Press, Delray BeachGoogle Scholar
  51. Lodge TE (2017) The Everglades handbook: understanding the ecosystem, 4th edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  52. Long RW (1984) Origin of the vascular flora of Southern Florida. In: Gleason PJ (ed) Environments of South Florida: present and past II. Miami Geological Society, Miami. (also in 1974 edition)Google Scholar
  53. Loveless CM (1959) A study of the vegetation in the Florida Everglades. Ecology 40(1):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McCally D (1999) The Everglades: an environmental history. University Presses of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  55. McPherson BF (1984) The big cypress swamp. In: Gleason PJ (ed) Environments of South Florida: present and past II. Miami Geological Society, Miami. (also in 1974 edition)Google Scholar
  56. McVoy, C.W., Said, W.P., Obeysekera, J., Vanarman, J.A., Dreschel, T.W. (2011). Landscapes and hydrology of the predrainage Everglades. University Press of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  57. Missimer TM (1984) The geology of South Florida: a summary. In: Gleason PJ (ed) Environments of South Florida: present and past II. Miami Geological Society, Miami. (also in 1974 edition)Google Scholar
  58. National Research Council (2016) Progress toward restoring the Everglades: the sixth biennial review – 2016. The National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  59. Nelson G (2011) The trees of Florida: a reference and field guide, 2nd edn. Pineapple Press, Inc., SarasotaGoogle Scholar
  60. Noe GB, Childers DL (2007) Phosphorus budgets in Everglades wetland ecosystems: the effects of hydrology and nutrient enrichment. Wetl Ecol Manag 15:189–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Odum WE, McIvor CC (1990) Mangroves. In: Myers RL, Ewel JJ (eds) Ecosystems of Florida. University of Central Florida Press, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  62. Ogden JC (1994) A comparison of wading bird nesting colony dynamics (1931–1946 and 1974–1989) as an indication of ecosystem conditions in the Southern Everglades. In: Davis SM, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucie Press, Delray BeachGoogle Scholar
  63. O’Hare NK, Dalrymple GH (1997) Wildlife in southern Everglades wetlands invaded by melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia). Bull Fla Mus Nat Hist 41(1):1–68Google Scholar
  64. Olmsted I, Loope LL (1984) Plant communities of Everglades National Park. In: Gleason PJ (ed) Environments of South Florida: present and past II. Miami Geological Society, MiamiGoogle Scholar
  65. Orians GH, Bean M, Lande R, Loftin K, Pimm S, Turner RE, Weller M (1992) Report of the advisory panel on the Everglades and endangered species, Audubon conservation report no. 8. National Audubon Society, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Palmer M, Mazzotti FJ (2004) Structure of Everglades alligator holes. Wetlands 24(1):115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Parker G (1984) Hydrology of the pre-drainage system of the Everglades in southern Florida. In: Gleason PJ (ed) Environments of South Florida: present and past II. Miami Geological Society, MiamiGoogle Scholar
  68. Parker GG, Ferguson GE, Love SK, and others (1955) Water resources of southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology and groundwater of the Miami area. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  69. Petuch EJ, Roberts CE (2007) The geology of the Everglades and adjacent areas. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pimm SL, Lockwood JL, Jenkins CN, Curnutt JL, Nott MP, Powell RD, Bass OL Jr (2002) Sparrow in the grass: a report on the first ten years of research on the Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis). Report under cooperative agreements CA5280-7-9016 (to the Univ. of Tennessee, Principal Investigator S.L. Pimm) and CA5280-0-0010 (to the University of California at Santa Cruz, Principal Investigator J.L. Lockwood)Google Scholar
  71. Pomaea Project, Inc. (2013) Literature review of Florida apple snails and snail kites, and recommendations for their adaptive management. Final report. Submitted to National Park Service, Everglades National Park, by The Pomacea Project, Inc., Pensacola, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  72. Rader RB (1994) Macroinvertebrates of the northern Everglades: species composition and trophic structure. Fla Sci 57(1,2):22–33Google Scholar
  73. Richardson CJ (2008) The Everglades experiments: lessons for ecosystem restoration. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Said WP, Brown MC (2013) Hydrologic simulation of the predrainage greater Everglades using the natural system regional simulation model v3.5.2. South Florida Water Management District, Water Resources Division, Water Supply Bureau, Hydrologic and Environmental Systems Modeling Section, West Palm BeachGoogle Scholar
  75. Scheidt DJ, Kalla PI (2007) Everglades ecosystem assessment: water management and quality, eutrophication, mercury contamination, soils and habitat: monitoring for adaptive management: a R-EMAP status report. USEPA Region 4, Athens, GA. EPA 904-R-07-001Google Scholar
  76. Schmitz DC, Simberloff D, Hofstetter RH, Haller W, Sutton D (1997) The ecological impact of nonindigenous plants. In: Simberloff D, Schmitz DC, Brown TC (eds) Strangers in paradise: impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  77. SFWMD (2008) South Florida environmental report, executive summary. South Florida Water Management District, W. Palm Beach, pp 24–25Google Scholar
  78. SFWMD (2016) South Florida environmental report. South Florida Water Management District, W. Palm BeachGoogle Scholar
  79. Sklar, F.H., van der Valk, A. (eds.) (2002). Tree islands of the Everglades. Kluwer Academic Publishers, BostonGoogle Scholar
  80. Smith TR, Bass OL Jr (1994) Landscape, white-tailed deer, and the distribution of Florida panthers in the Everglades. In: Davis SM, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucie Press, Delray BeachGoogle Scholar
  81. Steinman AD, Havens KE, Carrick HJ, VanZee R (2002) The past, present, and future hydrology and ecology of Lake Okeechobee and its watersheds. In: Porter JW, Porter KG (eds) The Everglades, Florida Bay, and Coral Reefs of the Florida Keys: an ecosystem source book. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  82. Tomlinson PB (2001) The biology of trees native to tropical Florida, 2nd edn. Harvard Printing and Publications Services, AllstonGoogle Scholar
  83. Troxler TG, Coronado-Molina C, Rondeau DN, Krupa S, Newman S, Manna M, Rice RM, Sklar FH (2014) Interactions of local climatic, biotic and hydrogeochemical processes facilitate phosphorus dynamics along an Everglades forest-marsh gradient. Biogeosciences 11:899–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. USACE (2014) Final integrated project implementation report and environmental impact statement, Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville DistrictGoogle Scholar
  85. USACE and SFWMD (1999) Central and Southern Florida project comprehensive review study final integrated feasibility report and programmatic environmental impact statement. Final report, appendices, and ATLSSGoogle Scholar
  86. USFWS (1999) South Florida multi-species recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  87. USFWS (2012) Endangered and Threatened wildlife and plants; Reclassification of the continental U.S. breeding population of the Wood Stork from Endangered to Threatened. Fed Regist 77(247):75947–75966Google Scholar
  88. U.S. Senate (1911) Everglades of Florida: acts, reports, and other papers, state and national, relating to the Everglades of the State of Florida and their reclamation. 62nd Congress, 1st session, Senate document no. 89. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Notes: (1) This document was reprinted verbatim (undated, about 1998) as South Florida in Peril: a study in bureaucratic self-deception by Florida Classics Library, Port Salerno, Florida (ISBN 0-912451-43-2); and (2) This document contains the “Report of Buckingham Smith, ESQ, on his Reconnoissance[sic] of the Everglades (1848)” with appendix, pp 46–66Google Scholar
  89. Vignoles C (1823) Observations upon the Floridas. Reproduction of the 1823 edition with prefatory material, introduction, and index added (1977 copyright). Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile Series. The University Presses of Florida, Gainesville, 1977. A legible fold-out copy of Vignoles’ 1823 map is includedGoogle Scholar
  90. Wanless HR, Parkinson RW, Tedesco LP (1994) Sea level control on stability of Everglades wetlands. In: Davis SM, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucie Press, Delray BeachGoogle Scholar
  91. Wetzel PR, Sklar FH, Coronado-Molina CA, Troxler TG, Krupa SL, Sullivan PL, Ewe S, Price RM, Newman S, Orem WH (2011) Biogeochemical processes on tree islands in the greater Everglades: initiating a new paradigm. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 41(S1):670–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wetzel PR, Sah JP, Ross MS (2017) Tree islands: the bellwether of Everglades ecosystem function and restoration success. Restor Ecol 25:S71-75. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.12428 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Willard DA, Holmes CW, Korvela MS, Manson D, Murray JB, Orem WH, Towles DT (2002) Paleoecological insights on fixed tree island development in the Florida Everglades: I. environmental controls. In: Sklar FH, van der Valk A (eds) Tree islands of the Everglades. Kluwer Academic Publishers, BostonGoogle Scholar
  94. Willard D, Bernhardt CE, Holmes CW, Landacre B, Marot M (2006) Response of Everglades tree islands to environmental change. Ecol Monogr 76(4):565–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Willard D, Bernhardt CE (2011) Impacts of past climate and sea level change on Everglades wetlands: placing a century of anthropogenic change into a late-Holocene context. Clim Chang 107:59–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Winsberg MD (2003) Florida weather, 2nd edn. University Press of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  97. Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, Frank AR, Essig FB (2016) Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (http://florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/). [S.M. Landry and K.N. Campbell (application development), USF Water Institute.] Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida, Tampa

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas E. Lodge
    • 1
  1. 1.Consulting EcologistAshevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations