Accelerated and Active Self-healing Techniques for BTI Wearout

  • Xinfei Guo
  • Mircea R. Stan


BTI has long been recognized as a partially reversible wearout effect, but the literature is vague about how much recovery can be achieved under different conditions and what it means for designers to boost the rate and level of BTI recovery. This chapter proposes a series of biologically inspired techniques that are able to effectively accelerate and activate the BTI recovery; measurement results with actual hardware demonstrate that even what would be considered irreversible BTI wearout can be almost fully eliminated by employing an internal circadian rhythm for recovery. By fully taking advantage of the explored unique BTI recovery behaviors and running the system in a “refreshed” mode, the necessary design margins that would be assigned by flat-guardband approach can be significantly reduced, and the average performance can be improved as well. We present the theory, models, experimental demonstration, and potential design benefits of accelerated and active BTI recovery in this chapter.


BTI Accelerated recovery Active recovery Circadian rhythm Frequency dependency FPGA Design margin 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xinfei Guo
    • 1
  • Mircea R. Stan
    • 1
  1. 1.University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

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