Introduction to Wearout

  • Xinfei Guo
  • Mircea R. Stan


Over the last decade, CMOS wearout emerged as one of the most critical threats to circuit performance and system reliability. Among recognized wearout mechanisms, bias temperature instability (BTI) and electromigration (EM) appear as two dominant effects that affect transistors and interconnect, respectively. Conventional flat guardband or dynamic margin design approaches address these effects by tolerating them, but they can be both costly and insufficient. Techniques that can take advantage of recovery of the phenomena can be more economic and effective. In this chapter, we present a taxonomy of state-of-the-art BTI and EM mitigation techniques that were developed across the system hierarchy, followed by the introduction of the concept of accelerated active self-healing that will be addressed throughout the rest of the book.


BTI EM Wearout mitigation Recovery 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xinfei Guo
    • 1
  • Mircea R. Stan
    • 1
  1. 1.University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

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