Advertisement

Developing Leaders in Multicultural Organisational Contexts Within a Positive Psychology Framework: Jung’s Active Imagination Intervention

  • Claude-Hélène MayerEmail author
  • Rudolf M. Oosthuizen
Chapter

Abstract

The aim of the chapter is to introduce positive psychology intervention, which is useful and constructive in contributing to the development of leaders in terms of multicultural cooperation and team development, as well as conflict management skills within a multicultural organisational leadership context. By applying this intervention, team members are guided to improve the collaboration, conflict management and creative potential within the multicultural setting of the organisation. The chapter is based on a critical review of the relevant literature on positive psychology wave one (PP1.0) and positive psychology wave two (PP2.0), and provides insights into the selected applied intervention. This intervention refers to Jung’s active imagination and transfers it into the multicultural leadership context. The intervention is presented within a case study scenario in which it was used to strengthen individual and organisational cooperation, conflict management and problem solving competences, as well as the mental health and well-being of the diverse team members. The intervention of active imagination is explained and it is shown how team members could work with their images within the team management context to improve mutual comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. Finally, conclusions are drawn and recommendations for future theory and practice are given.

Keywords

Positive psychology interventions PP1.0 PP2.0 Active imagination Jung Multicultural team development Creativity Creative leadership intervention 

References

  1. Amos, T. L. (2012). The dynamics of leadership. In D. Hellriegel, J. Slocum, S. E. Jackson, L. Louw, G. Staude, T. L. Amos, H. B. Klopper, M. J. Louw, T. F. J. Oosthuizen, S. Perks, & S. Zindiye, Management (Eds.), (pp. 370–401), 4th South African edition. Cape Town: Oxford University Press Southern Africa.Google Scholar
  2. Antonovsky, A. (1979). Health, stress, and coping: New perspectives on mental and physical well-being. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  3. Baumeister, R. F., Heatherton, T. F., & Tice, D. M. (1994). Losing control: How and why people fail at self-regulation. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bennett, M. J. (2017). Online debate—Has multiculuralism in the West reached its limit? Culture. Email communication, April 30, 2017.Google Scholar
  5. Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13, 83.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bosnak, R. (2003). Embodied imagination. Journal of Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 39(4).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bosnak, R. (2007). Embodiment: Creative imagination in medicine, art and travel. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, M. L., McDonald, S., & Smith, F. (2013). Jungian archetypes and dreams of social enterprise. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 26(4), 670–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chodorow, J. (1997). Jung on active imagination. NJ, Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Chodorow, J. (2006). Active imagination. In R. K. Papadopouluos (Ed.), The handbook of Jungian psychology. Theory, practice and applications (pp. 215–240). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Cruz, J. (2017). Pilgrimage in leadership. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 5(2), Article 10. https://arrow.dit.ie/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1190&context=ijrtp.
  12. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). The promise of positive psychology. Psychological Topics, 18, 203–211.Google Scholar
  13. Fava, G. A., Rafanelli, C., Cazzaro, M., Conti, S., & Grandi, S. (1998). Well-being therapy. A novel psychotherapeutic approach for residual symptoms of affective disorders. Psychological Medicine, 28, 475–480.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291797006363.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Fava, G. A., Ruini, C., Rafanelli, C., Fnios, L., Salmaso, L., Mangelli, L & Sirigatti, S. (2005). Well-being therapy of generalized anxiety disorder. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74(1), 25–30.Google Scholar
  15. Gorlin, E. I., Lee, J., & Otto, M. W. (2018). A topographical map approach to representing treatment efficacy: A focus on positive psychology interventions. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 47(1), 34–42.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2017.1342173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gruman, J. A., Lumley, M. N., & González-Morales, M. G. (2018). Incorporating balance: Challenges and opportunities for positive psychology. Canadian Psychology, 59(1), 54–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harvie, D., & Milburn, K. (2017). Can a knife shadow cut real flesh from a living tree? The organisation of imaginal commons. Ph.D. thesis at the University of Leicester. https://lra.le.ac.uk/bitstream/2381/39923/1/2017BROWNGSPhD.pdf.
  18. Haslam, S. A., Reicher, S. D., & Platow, M. J. (2011). The new psychology of leadership: Identity, influence and power. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  19. Jackson, S. W. (1990). The imagination and psychological healing. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 26(4), 345–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jackson, L., & Rothmann, S. (2006). Occupational stress, organisational commitment, and ill-health of educators in the North West Province. South African Journal of Education, 26(1), 75–95.Google Scholar
  21. Jung, C. G. (1953; 1928). The technique of differentiation between the ego and the figures of the unconscious. Collective works, 7, 341–373. Princton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Jung, C. G. (1961). Memories, dreams and reflections. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  23. Jung, C. G. (1970). The archetypes and the collective unconscious. In The collected works of CG Jung (R. F. C. Hull, trans.) (Vol. 9, 2nd ed., Bollingen Series 20). Princeton: Princeton UP 490.Google Scholar
  24. Jung, C. G. (2009). The red book. In Liber Novus: A reader’s edition. Edited and with an introduction by Sonu Shamdasani. London: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  25. Kekes, J. (2006). The enlargement of life: Moral imagination at work. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Kriger, M., & Seng, Y. (2005). Leadership with inner meaning A contingency theory of leadership based on the worldview of five religions. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 771–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuopalla, J., Lamminpaa, A., Liira, J., & Vainio, H. (2008). Leadership. Job well-being and health effects—a systematic review and a meta-anaysis. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 50(8), 904–91.Google Scholar
  28. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  29. Linley, P. A., Joseph, S., Harrington, S., & Wood, A. M. (2006). Positive psychology: Past, present and (possible) future. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 3–16.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760500372796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Luthans, F. (2002a). The need for and meaning of positive organisation behavior. Journal of Organisational Behavior, 23, 695–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Luthans, F. (2002b). Positive organisational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths. Academy of Management Executive, 16, 57–72.Google Scholar
  32. Lyubomirsky, S. (2013). The myth of happiness: What should make you happy but doesn’t, what shouldn’t make you happy but does, what happiness really is—and isn’t. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  33. Mayer, C.-H. (2005). Artificial walls. South African narratives on conflict, difference and identity. An exploratory study in post-apartheid South Africa. Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag.Google Scholar
  34. Mayer, C.-H. (2008). Managing conflict across cultures, values and identities. A case study in the South African automotive industry. Wissenschaftliche Beiträge aus dem Tectum Verlag, Reihe: Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Band 20 Ph.D., Department of Management Faculty of Commerce Rhodes University. Marburg: Tectum Verlag.Google Scholar
  35. Mayer, C.-H. (2011). The meaning of sense of coherence in transcultural management. Internationale Hochschulschriften Series. Münster: Waxmann.Google Scholar
  36. Mayer, C.-H. (2018). Unemployed and high achiever? Working with active imagination and symbols to transform shame. In C.-H. Mayer & E. Vanderheiden (Ed.), (2019 in press). The bright side of shame. Cham, CH: Springer International.Google Scholar
  37. Mayer, C.-H., & Van Zyl L. (2013). Perspectives of female leaders on sense of coherence and mental health in an engineering environment. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, 39(2), Art.#1097, 11 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v39i2.1097, http://sajip.co.za/index.php/sajip/article/viewFile/1097/1410.
  38. Mayer, C.-H., & Viviers, A. M. (2016). Systemic thinking and transcultural approaches in coaching psychology. In L. Van Zyl (Ed.), Coaching psychology: Meta-theoretical perspectives and application in multi-cultural contexts. Cham, CH: Springer Publishing.Google Scholar
  39. Mayer, C.-H., & Tonelli, L. (2017). Dream on – there is no salvation! Transforming shame in the workplace through personal and organisational strategies. In E. Vanderheiden & C.-H. Mayer (Eds). The value of shame – exploring a health resource in cultural contexts (pp. 135–156). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  40. Mayer, C.-H., & Geldenhuys, D. J. (2018). Workplace spirituality and wellness. An organizational neuroscientific perspective. The Routledge Companion to Management and Workplace Spirituality: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Mayer, C.-H., & Walach, H. (2018). Workplace spirituality in contemporary South Africa. Handbook of Workplace Spirituality and Fulfillment.Google Scholar
  42. Mayer, C.-H., & Vanderheiden, E. (2019). Transforming and growing through practical applications in cultural contexts. In The bright side of shame. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  43. Peacock, E. J., & Wong, P. T. P. (1990). The stress appraisal measure (SAM): A multidimensional approach to cognitive appraisal. Stress Medicine, 6, 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Raskin, J. D., & Bridges, S. K. (Eds.). (2004). Studies in meaning 2: Bridging the personal and social in constructivist psychology. New York: Pace University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Rozuel, C. (2012). Moral imagination and active imagination: Searching in the depth of the psyche. Journal of Management Development, 31(5), 488–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Samani, H. A., Koh, J. T. K. V., Saadatian, E., & Polydorou, D. (2012). Towards robotics leadership: An analysis of leadership characteristics and the roles robots will inherit in future human society. In J. S. Pan, S. M. Chen, N. T. Nguyen (Eds.), ACIIDS Part II, LNAI 7197 (pp 158–165).Google Scholar
  47. Seabright, M. A., & Schminke, M. (2002). Immoral imagination and revenge in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 38(12), 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Seligman, M. E. (1998a). The president’s address. American Psychologist, 54, 559–562.Google Scholar
  49. Seligman, M. E. (1998b). Positive psychology network concept paper. Retrieved from http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/ppgrant.htm.
  50. Seligman, M. E. (1990). Learned optimism. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  51. Seligman, M. E., Steen, T., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60, 410–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Swan-Foster, N. (2018). Active imagination and art therapy. In N. Swan-Foster (Ed.), Jungian art therapy (pp. 209–229). Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Vanderheiden, E., & Mayer, C.-H. (2017). The value of shame—exploring a health resource in cultural contexts. Cham Switzerland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Von Franz, M.-L. (2017). Alchemical active imagination. Revised edition. Boulder, Colorado: Shambhala Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  56. Wegge, J., & Rosenstiel, L. V. (2004). Führung. In H. Schuler (Ed.), Lehrbuch Organisationspsychologie (pp. 475–512). Bern: Huber S.Google Scholar
  57. Werhane, P. H. (2002). Moral imagination and systems thinking. Journal of Business Ethics, 38(1–2), 33–42.Google Scholar
  58. Wilson Reynolds, M. J. (2015). Imagining and shaping: Exploring creativity in leadership. Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated) thesis. School of Education – Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong. http://ro.uow.edu.au/theses/4405.
  59. Wolf, S., Huttges, A., Hoch, J. E., & Wegge, J. (2010). Führung und Gesundheit. In D. Windemuth, D. Jung, O. Petermann (Ed.), Praxishandbuch psychische Belastungen im Beruf. Vorbeugen—erkennen—handeln Stuttgart (pp. 220–231).Google Scholar
  60. Wong, P. T. P. (1998). Implicit theories of meaningful life and the development of the Personal Meaning Profile (PMP). In P. T. P. Wong & P. Fry (Eds.), The human quest for meaning: A handbook of psychological research and clinical applications (pp. 111–140). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  61. Wong, P. T. P. (2007). Perils and promises in the pursuit of happiness (Review of the book In Search of happiness: Understanding an endangered state of mind). PsycCRITIQUES, 52(49).  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0010040.
  62. Wong, P. T. P. (2010). What is existential positive psychology? International Journal of Existential Psychology and Psychotherapy, 3(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
  63. Wong, P. T. P. (2011). Positive psychology 2.0: Towards a balanced interactive model of the good life. Canadian Psychology, 52(2), 69–81. Retrieved from http://www.drpaulwong.com/positive-psychology-2-0-towards-a-balanced-interactive-model-of-the-good-life/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wong, P. T. P. (2013). Positive psychology. In K. Keith (Ed.), Encyclopedia of cross-cultural psychology (pp. 1021–1026). Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wong, P. T. P. (2015). What is second wave positive psychology and why is it necessary? http://www.drpaulwong.com/what-is-second-wave-positive-psychology-and-why-is-it-necessary/.
  66. Wong, P. T. P., & Weiner, B. (1981). When people ask “Why” questions and the heuristic of attributional search. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 650–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wong, Y., & Tsai, J. L. (2007). Cultural models of shame and guilt. In J. Tracy, R. Robins, & J. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self-conscious emotions. Guildford: New York, NJ.Google Scholar
  68. Wong, P. T. P., Ivtzan, I., & Lomas, T. (2016). Good work: A meaning-centred approach. In L. G. Oades, M. F. Steger, A. Delle Fave, & J. Passmore (Eds.), The Wiley Blackwell and book of the psychology of positivity and strengths-based approaches at work (pp. 231–247). West Sussex, UK: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
  69. Wong, P. T. P., Ivtzan, I., & Lomas, T. (2017). Good work: A meaning-centred approach. In L. G. Oades, M. F. Steger, A. Delle Fave, & J. Passmore (Eds.), The Wiley Blackwell handbook of the psychology of positivity and strengths-based approaches at work (pp. 233–247). West Sussex, UK: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
  70. Wright, R. P., & Dziak, J. M. (2016). Storytelling as a primary leadership tool. Aerospace Conference IEEE (pp. 5–12), March 2016. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7500928/.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial Psychology and People ManagementUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Institut für Therapeutische Kommunikation und SprachgebrauchEuropa Universität ViadrinaFrankfurt (Oder)Germany
  3. 3.Department of Industrial PsychologyUniversity of South AfricaPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations