Bone Tissue Engineering Challenges in Craniofacial Reconstructive Surgeries

  • Seyed Mohammad Zargar
  • Nima JamshidiEmail author


Craniofacial deformities can be categorized into congenital, traumatic, and cancerous ones. The author presents an overview of craniofacial defects, the available therapies, tissue engineering approach, scaffolds, polymers, ceramics, cells, and growth factors. Defects in the craniofacial region have to be considered as critical to be reconstructed. Tissue engineering seems to be a much better approach than others since it does not result in donor site morbidity and does not have the problem of the lack of suitable source in terms of quality and quantity. Although a lot of work and experimental studies have been carried out in this regard, there is a broad range of studies that remain and hoped to be done for finding the best cure for the problems.


Embryonic stem cells Scaffolds Growth factors 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringFaculty of Engineering , University of IsfahanIsfahanIran

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