Advertisement

What Does It Mean to Be an Underrepresented Minority Leader in Surgery

  • Jeffrey S. UppermanEmail author
  • Jessica N. Rea
  • Henri R. Ford
Chapter
Part of the Success in Academic Surgery book series (SIAS)

Abstract

A culturally diverse work force is important for addressing health disparities in the United States. Yet underrepresented minority in medicine (URMM) physicians remain scarce in the health care work force. In fact, there is a small number of African- and Hispanic-American surgeons in the surgical work force and especially in academic surgery. One of the key barriers is a dearth of URMM candidates in the pipeline. Furthermore, the gap between the proportion African- or Hispanic-Americans and the percentage of URMM students graduating from U.S. medical schools continues to widen. As a result, URMM surgical leaders face burdens based on several practical and social expectations (e.g. brown tax). This chapter explores several concepts including: the obstacles that URMM surgeons face in ascending to positions of leadership in academic surgery; the approach to overcoming some of these barriers as illustrated by pioneer URMM surgical leaders; and the roles of the URMM surgical leader.

Keywords

Minority Surgery Leadership Diversity Mentorship Underrepresented 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to thank the following outstanding leaders in academic surgery, who happen to be from an underrepresented minority in medicine, for their continuing support, mentoring, and insightful contributions to this chapter: L.D. Britt, Andre Campbell, Edward Cornwell, Steven Stain, Patricia Turner, and Selwyn Vickers.

References

  1. 1.
    IOM. How far have we come in reducing health disparities?: Progress since 2000: workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. National healthcare disparities report. Rockville, MD: AHRQ; 2014.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    AAMC. Diversity in medical education: facts & figures 2012. Association of American Medical Colleges, Diversity Policy and Programs. Washington, DC: AAMC; 2012. p. 20.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Butler PD, Longaker MT, Britt LD. Addressing the paucity of underrepresented minorities in academic surgery: can the “Rooney Rule” be applied to academic surgery? Am J Surg. 2010;199:255–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jenkins RR. Diversity and inclusion: strategies to improve pediatrics and pediatric health care delivery. Pediatrics. 2014;133:327–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    United States Census Bureau. State & county QuickFacts. Suitland, MD: United States Census Bureau; 2014.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    AAMC. Total enrollment by U.S. Medical School and race and ethnicity, 2013. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges; 2014.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    AAMC. Distribution of U.S. medical school faculty by sex, race/hispanic origin, tenure status, and department. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges; 2014.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    AAMC. Number of active residents, by type of medical school, GME specialty, and sex, 2016–2017. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges; 2017.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    United States Census Bureau. Annual resident population estimates of the United States by race and Hispanic or Latino origin: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2002. Suitland, MD: United States Census Bureau; 2002.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    United States Census Bureau. Annual estimates of the resident population by sex, race, and Hispanic origin for the United States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011. Suitland, MD: United States Census Bureau; 2011.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ford HR. Mentoring, diversity, and academic surgery. J Surg Res. 2004;118:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pololi LH, Evans AT, Gibbs BK, Krupat E, Brennan RT, et al. The experience of minority faculty who are underrepresented in medicine, at 26 representative U.S. medical schools. Acad Med. 2013;88:1308–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wong RL, Sullivan MC, Yeo HL, Roman SA, Bell RH, et al. Race and surgical residency: results from a national survey of 4339 US general surgery residents. Ann Surg. 2013;257:782–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Williams DH. Stab wound of the heart and pericardium - suture of the pericardium - recovery - patient alive three years afterward. Am Period Med Rec. 1897;51:437.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cobb WM. Daniel Hale Williams-Pioneer and Innovator. J Natl Med Assoc. 1944;36:158–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Organ CH Jr. A century of black surgeons: the U.S.A. experience. Norman, OK: Transcript Press; 1987.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cornwell EE. Dr. Asa Yancey and the realization of his mentor’s dream. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2016;101:53–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yancey AG, Cromartie JE, Ford JR, Nichols RR, Saville AF. A modification of the Swenson technique for congenital megacolon. J Natl Med Assoc. 1952;44:356–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Organ CH. The black surgeon in the twentieth century: a tribute to Samuel L. Kountz, MD. J Natl Med Assoc. 1978;70:683–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brown DL. Changing the face of medicine. Bethesda, MD: US National Library of Medicine.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schneidman DS. Breaking down barriers for minorities and cancer patients: a profile of LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2011;96:18–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Organ CH Jr. Opening doors: contemporary African American Academic Surgeons. Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2006.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Organ CH Jr. A century of back surgeons: the U.S.A experience. Norman, OK: Transcript Press; 1987.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Simpson E. Respected Suffolk surgeon takes prestigious position. The Virgininan-Pilot. Norfolk, VA: Landmark Media Enterprises L.L.C.; 2010. http://hamptonroads.com/2010/2009/respected-suffolk-surgeon-takes-prestigious-position.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    New Frontiers in Academic Surgery. Opening doors: contemporary African American Academic Surgeons. Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2006.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alvord LA. Changing the face of medicine. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Quiñones-Hinojosa A. Illegal farm worker becomes brain surgeon. Washington, DC: National Public Radio; 2011.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pololi L, Cooper LA, Carr P. Race, disadvantage and faculty experiences in academic medicine. J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25:1363–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chapman EN, Kaatz A, Carnes M. Physicians and implicit bias: how doctors may unwittingly perpetuate health care disparities. J Gen Intern Med. 2013;28:1504–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Leffall LD. Seven surgical exemplars and the College--lest we forget. Am J Surg. 1998;176:361–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gonzalez P, Stoll B. The color of medicine: strategies for increasing diversity in the U.S. physician workforce. Boston, MA: Community Catalyst; 2002.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Waymer D. Each one, reach one: an autobiographic account of a Black PR professor’s mentor-mentee relationships with Black graduate students. Pub Relat Inq. 2012;1:398–414.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kruse K. What is leadership? Jersey City, NJ: ForbesForbes.com LLC; 2013. http://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2013/2004/2009/what-is-leadership/.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cornwell EE, III. Personal correspondence. 29 September 2014.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Copeland EM. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr., MD, FACS: the first Heritage Award winner, Society of Surgical Oncology. Ann Surg Oncol. 2001;8:477–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey S. Upperman
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jessica N. Rea
    • 2
  • Henri R. Ford
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryKeck School of Medicine of the University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Children’s Hospital Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Millier School of MedicineMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations