Turkey–Russia Relations: Complex Cooperation

  • Habibe Özdal
Part of the New Security Challenges book series (NSECH)


After five centuries of rivalry and hostility, Turkey–Russia relations appeared to have begun a new and more positive phase in the early 2000s, characterised by cooperation. However, this trend was rudely interrupted by the warplane incident that took place on 24 November 2015; when a Turkish fighter jet shot down a Russian aircraft near the Turkey–Syria border. After a seven-month break in relations, a “normalisation” process has started with the aim of overcoming the negative effects of the incident.

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© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Habibe Özdal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of International Relationsİstanbul Okan UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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