Garuda Indonesia: A Turbulent Journey to Global Expansion

  • Farrah Almira Ali


Despite Indonesia’s popularity as a tropical holiday destination, the past decade has been marked by episodes of plane crashes (though ranking low among traffic incidents), natural disasters, incidents and protest rallies driven by the country’s political instability, as well as terror attacks claimed by Islamic extremist groups. As the flag carrier of Indonesia, Garuda Indonesia’s vision was to become “a strong distinguished airline through providing quality services to serve people and goods around the world with Indonesian hospitality.” Garuda has made it its mission to promote Indonesia to the international society and to support national economic development by delivering professional air travel services. Although Garuda is perceived as the nation’s pride and the most trustworthy airline by the Indonesians, perceptions from the past and recent incidents lingered in the minds of travelers, especially Europeans. Foreign travelers tend to be skeptical and more reluctant to choose Garuda over national or regional airlines. One of Garuda’s main challenges as an emerging market multinational is to overcome negative perceptions that can undermine its brand.


  1. AirSafe. (2015). Garuda Indonesia plane crashes. Retrieved October 09, 2018 from
  2. Barrance, K. (2016, September 25). The service was superb. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  3. BBC News. (2008). Pilot guilty of activist murder. Retrieved October 09, 2018 from
  4. BBC News. (2009). EU lifts Indonesian airline ban. Retrieved October 09, 2018 from
  5. Bolster, E. (2017). Personal interview by Farrah Almira Ali, February 10, 2017.Google Scholar
  6. Casius, G., & Postma, T. (1986). 40 jaar luchtvaart in Indië. Alkmaar: De Alk.Google Scholar
  7. Channel NewsAsia. (2017). Indonesian airline Garuda still plans US flights despite Trump policy. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  8. Deloitte. (2015). SMEs powering Indonesia’s success: The connected archipelago’s growth engine. Sydney.Google Scholar
  9. Garuda Indonesia. (2015). Annual report 2014: Elevating value of journey. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  10. Garuda Indonesia. (2016). Annual report 2015: Caring with passion to serve. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  11. Garuda Indonesia. (2017). Consolidated financial statements. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  12. Garuda Indonesia. (2018). About Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  13. Landor. (2018). Garuda Indonesia: Lifting profits in a downturn. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  14. Maliangkay, B. Y., & Rumokoy, F. (2015). The influence of brand equity and service quality to customer loyalty of Garuda Indonesia airlines. Jurnal Berkala Ilmiah Efisiensi, 15(4), 378–389.Google Scholar
  15. Marketing Interactive. (2017). Former CEO of Garuda Indonesia suspected in corruption case. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  16. Primadhyta, S., & Jati, G. P. (2015). Garuda Indonesia gerus pangsa pasar penumpang domestik Lion. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  17. Roy, G. (2017). Garuda Indonesia launches direct flights between Mumbai and Jakarta: Attractive all-in return fares to Jakarta and Denpasar - Bali from Mumbai. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  18. SkyTrax (2016a). The 2016 World Airline Awards are announced. Retrieved February 10, 2017, from
  19. SkyTrax (2016b). Garuda Indonesia: Customer reviews. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from
  20. Smith, O. (2015). How dangerous is flying in Indonesia? Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  21. The Guardian. (2017). Garuda passenger plane with 130 on board skids off runway in Indonesia. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  22. The Jakarta Post. (2017). Garuda Indonesia taps into charter flight demand in China. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  23. United States Census Bureau. (2018). U.S. Census Bureau current population. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  24. UPI. (2007). Indonesian carriers banned from EU. Retrieved October 10, 2018 from
  25. Wirtz, J., & Lovelock, C. H. (2016). Services marketing: People, technology, strategy (8th ed.). New Jersey: World Scientific Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farrah Almira Ali
    • 1
  1. 1.Tommy HilfigerTias School for Business and SocietyUtrechtNetherlands

Personalised recommendations