Advertisement

The Moving Image

  • Nick Wiltsher
  • Aaron Meskin
Chapter

Abstract

Films typically provide an experience that is very much like the experience of ordinary motion. It is for this reason that they are commonly known as moving pictures or, slightly more broadly, moving images. Our focus in this chapter is on making sense of that experience. We begin our chapter by exploring the centrality of the experience of movement (or apparent movement) to film. We turn then to various explanations of that experience. Perhaps film images are transparent and allow us to indirectly see the movement of the objects they depict. Or perhaps certain theories of depiction can make sense of the experience of motion in cinema. In the final section, we address a range of ontological issues raised by the question of cinematic movement. Is the motion of images real movement or merely illusory? What is a cinematic image?

Keywords

Depiction Illusionism Image Motion Moving images Realism Response-dependent property Transparency 

Bibliography

  1. Abell, Catharine. 2009. Canny Resemblance. Philosophical Review 118 (2): 183–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carroll, Noël. 1995. Towards an Ontology of the Moving Image. In Philosophy of Film, ed. Cynthia Freeland and Thomas Wartenberg, 66–85. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. ———. 1996. Theorizing the Moving Image. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Carroll, John W. 2002. Instantaneous Motion. Philosophical Studies 110 (1): 49–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carroll, Noël. 2008. The Philosophy of Motion Pictures. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  6. Cohen, Jonathan, and Aaron Meskin. 2004. On the Epistemic Value of Photographs. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 62 (2): 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Costello, Diarmuid, and Dawn M. Phillips. 2009. Automatism, Causality and Realism: Foundational Problems in the Philosophy of Photography. Philosophy Compass 4 (1): 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Currie, Gregory. 1995. Image and Mind: Film, Philosophy and Cognitive Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Danto, Arthur C. 1979. Moving Pictures. Quarterly Review of Film Studies 4 (1): 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deleuze, Gilles. 1986. Cinema 1: The Movement-Image. Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam. London: Athlone Press.Google Scholar
  11. ———. 1989. Cinema 2: The Time-Image. Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galeta. London: Athlone Press.Google Scholar
  12. Gaut, Berys. 2010. A Philosophy of Cinematic Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goodman, Nelson. 1968. Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  14. Hoerl, Christoph. 2015. Seeing Motion and Apparent Motion. European Journal of Philosophy 23 (3): 676–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hopkins, Robert. 1998. Picture, Image and Experience: A Philosophical Inquiry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 2008. What Do We See In Film? Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 66 (2): 149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. ———. 2009. Depiction. In The Routledge Companion to Philosophy and Film, ed. Paisley Livingstone and Carl Plantinga, 64–74. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Hyman, John. 2012. Depiction. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 71: 129–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kania, Andrew. 2002. The Illusion of Realism in Film. British Journal of Aesthetics 42 (3): 243–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kleinschmidt, Shieva. 2017. At It Again: Time-Travel and the At-At Account of Motion. Erkenntnis 82 (2): 185–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kulvicki, John. 2006. On Images: Their Structure and Content. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lopes, Dominic McIver. 1996. Understanding Pictures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. ———. 1999. Pictorial Color: Aesthetics and Cognitive Science. Philosophical Psychology 12 (4): 415–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mortensen, Chris. 2013. Motion Perception as Inconsistent. Philosophical Psychology 26 (6): 913–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ponech, Trevor. 2006a. The Substance of Cinema. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 64 (1): 187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. ———. 2006b. External Realism about Cinematic Motion. British Journal of Aesthetics 46 (4): 349–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. ———. 2007. Cinema Again: A Reply to Walley. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65 (4): 412–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Priest, Graham. 2006. Contradiction: A Study of the Transconsistent. expanded ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Russell, Bertrand. 1903. Principles of Mathematics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Schier, Flint. 1986. Deeper into Pictures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shelley, James. Motion Sickness. Unpublished manuscript, May 2017. Microsoft Word file.Google Scholar
  32. Walley, Jonathan. 2007. On Ponech on the Essence of Cinema. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65 (4): 408–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Walton, Kendall L. 1984. Transparent Pictures: On the Nature of Photographic Realism. Critical Inquiry 18 (1): 67–72.Google Scholar
  34. ———. 1986. Looking Again through Photographs: A Response to Edwin Martin. Critical Inquiry 12 (4): 801–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. ———. 1990. Mimesis as Make-Believe: On the Foundations of the Representational Arts. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Wilson, George. 2011. Seeing Fictions in Films. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Wollheim, Richard. 1998. On Pictorial Representation. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56 (3): 217–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yanal, Robert. 2008. Defining the Moving Image: A Response to Noël Carroll. Film Philosophy 12: 135–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nick Wiltsher
    • 1
  • Aaron Meskin
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Philosophical PsychologyUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations